Chapter 5 Consumer Decision Making

Chapter 5 Consumer Decision Making

TRUE/FALSE

  1. If consumer behavior is not well understood, a marketer will have difficulty creating an appropriate marketing mix.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-1 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Strategy | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A restaurant gourmet who enjoyed eating sushi, veal, and snails would likely experience a need recognition for Whole Foods brand vegetarian cookies when he realized the cookies were made without any milk or eggs.

ANS: F

One way that need recognition occurs is when there is a felt imbalance between actual and desired state. The gourmet might be curious, but he would feel no need. PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A stimulus is a unit of input from either an external or internal source that can affect sight, smell, taste, touch, or hearing

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 146 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Def

 

  1. When Alan buys rock-climbing equipment, he will only buy Black Diamond, Petzl, Edelweiss, or Wild Country brands even though other brands exist. These listed brands make up Alans consideration set.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 150 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App

 

  1. Once an individual’s evoked set has been established, evaluation of those alternatives will determine what information must be obtained during the information search.

ANS: F

The information search stage usually yields an evoked set and precedes evaluation of alternatives. PTS: 1 REF: 150 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. There are several tools marketing managers can use to mitigate the effects of cognitive dissonance.

ANS: T

Marketing managers can also reduce dissonance. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. The purchase of products like soft drinks, cleaning products, and gasoline generally exemplify routine response behavior.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 152-153 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Comp

 

  1. Sunny has been a vegetarian for more than ten years and would like her husband to enjoy the vegetarian lifestyle, but he will not give up ice cream, cake, and candy, which contain milk and eggs. She has found a new line of soy-based ice cream that promises to be better than milk-based ice cream and is thinking about buying it even though it costs three times more than regular ice cream does. Sunny has engaged in extensive decision making.

ANS: F

Acquiring information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category is called limited decision making. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Noah perceives the purchase of a tattoo to be a socially risky decision because he thinks people will judge him unfairly if he has a tattoo. Hayley, however, does not perceive getting a tattoo as particularly risky behavior. As far as social risk is concerned, getting a tattoo will be a higherinvolvement activity for Noah than for Hayley.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App

 

  1. In general, detailed, informative advertisements are most effective for high-involvement products because consumers actively search for additional information prior to making their decisions.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 154 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. The United States, unlike some other countries, does not have a status structure or social class system.

ANS: F

The United States has a social class system. PTS: 1 REF: 160 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A newly hired employee at a advertising agency chose the clothes she purchased for work by observing the clothes she saw worn in The Apprentice, a popular television reality show. In this example, the women hoping to work for Donald Trump served as primary reference groups. ANS: F

The newly hired employee is not interacting with the apprentices face-to-face. PTS: 1 REF: 163 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Opinion leaders are often the first to try new products and services.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 165 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Def

 

  1. The socialization process involves adopting the values of the culture in which a person was raised and is usually strongly influenced by the family.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 166 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Comp

 

  1. Hata perceives herself as shy, socially awkward, and unpopular. This would be considered her real self-image.

ANS: T

Because this is how Hata perceives herself, this is her real self-image. PTS: 1 REF: 169 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. While lifestyle research is useful for describing individual consumers, it is not useful for segmenting consumer groups.

ANS: F

Lifestyle analysis, unlike personality research, has proven valuable in segmentation and targeting. PTS: 1 REF: 170 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Research

 

  1. Selective exposure occurs when consumers change information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs.

ANS: F

Selective distortion occurs when consumers change information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs categorizes human needs into five levels: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 173 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Listening to someone describe how boring it was to be a movie extra is an example of experiential learning.

ANS: F

Listening to the experiences of others, not undergoing the experience yourself, is an example of conceptual learning. It is a key part of social learning theory (also known as observational learning). PTS: 1 REF: 175 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. If the product element of the four P’s provides no reinforcement (positive or negative), activity in some other aspect of the marketing mix may be required to encourage further consumption.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 175 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Comp

 

  1. By keeping the blue triangle in the corner and the Nabisco name on several similar Nabisco snack products, Nabisco is attempting to capitalize on stimulus generalization.

ANS: T

PTS: 1 REF: 175 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The processes individuals use when making a purchase decision are called _____. This is also the reason individuals recognize and respond to the distinctive lettering used on Coca-Cola cans, the shape of the Nike swoosh, and the color of a can of Campbell soup.
  2. consumer behavior
  3. marketing
  4. consumerism
  5. perceptual mapping
  6. database mining

ANS: A

Consumer behavior describes how consumers make purchase decisions. PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-1 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Marketers often study _____, the processes used and the factors that influence the consumer when making purchase decisions.
  2. psychographics
  3. business buying behavior
  4. consumerism
  5. consumer behavior
  6. perceptual mapping

ANS: D

TS: 1 REF: 146 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-1 TYPE: Def OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App

 

  1. The steps of the consumer decision-making process in order are:
  2. need recognition, alternative aggregation, reevaluation, purchase decision, postpurchase behavior
  3. need positioning, stimulus response reactions, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, postpurchase behavior
  4. need positioning, alternative aggregation and divestment, purchase decision, postpurchase evaluation
  5. information search, need positioning, evaluation of alternatives, product trial, purchase decision, postpurchase satisfaction
  6. need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 146 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Def

 

  1. As a result of hearing the adventures of returning soldiers, Monroe decided to enlist in the U.S. Army. These stories he heard from the soldiers acted as:
  2. affective states
  3. external stimuli
  4. internal stimuli
  5. purchase outcomes
  6. a dissonance creator

ANS: B

The adventures he heard were stimuli that were not physiological. PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model International Perspective

 

  1. Hector loves cola and is always on a diet. He will only drink Diet Coke. When offered a Diet Pepsi one afternoon as an alternative, he refused to even consider it as part of his evoked set even though he generally drinks a soft drink about the time of day the offer was made. This illustrates that Hector:
  2. is satisfying a want
  3. is satisfying a need
  4. is satisfying a belief
  5. has a physiological drive
  6. has a need motivator

ANS: A

A want is often brand specific, whereas a need is something an individual depends on to function efficiently. A person may need food but wants specific brands. PTS: 1 REF: 146-147 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Which of the following is the BEST example of an internal stimulus that would create need recognition?
  2. a friend comments on how shabby your coat looks
  3. a radio station runs an ad for a new video game rental store
  4. a headache
  5. an invitation to a graduation for which you need a gift
  6. a billboard promoting a new national Internet service provider

ANS: C

Aches and pains are generated internally by your body without outside inputs from anything or anyone. PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. After a need or want is recognized, a consumer may be motivated to clarify the options available and generate an evoked set of brands. This occurs during which part of the consumer decision-making process?
  2. evaluation of alternatives
  3. information search
  4. cognitive dissonance
  5. consideration stage
  6. product identification

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 148 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Def

 

  1. While Martin was looking at the DVDs at Wal-Mart, he was trying to remember the name of the horror movie he saw that starred Bruce Campbell so he could buy the DVD. This is likely to occur during which part of the consumer decision-making process?
  2. antecedent state
  3. need recognition
  4. external information search
  5. alternative evaluation
  6. internal information search

ANS: E

After a need or want is recognized, a consumer may be motivated to search for information. In this case, the information was already stored in his memory. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. The types of products people purchase using only an internal search are typically:
  2. frequently purchased, low-cost items
  3. frequently purchased, high-cost items
  4. infrequently purchased, low-cost items
  5. infrequently purchased, high-cost items
  6. all types of items, regardless of price or frequency of purchase

ANS: A

Information about frequently purchased, low-cost items is stored in an individual’s memory and is sufficient knowledge for the purchase decision. PTS: 1 REF: 148-149 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Which of the following products would most likely require the purchaser to use only an internal information search?
  2. a veterinarian for a new puppy
  3. a day-care facility for a two-month-old infant
  4. a wedding gown
  5. a tube of toothpaste
  6. an anniversary gift

ANS: D

Internal information search is used with frequently purchased, low-cost items; the only item on the list that meets this criterion is the toothpaste. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. An external information search is especially important when:
  2. there is a great deal of past experience
  3. there are high cost associated with making an incorrect decision
  4. the cost of gathering information is high
  5. buying frequently purchased, low-cost items
  6. there is little risk of making an incorrect decision

ANS: B

If a consumer perceives a purchase to involve high risk (financial, social, etc.), an external search will lower the risk by providing more information. PTS: 1 REF: 149 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. For which of the following products is the purchaser most likely to rely on an external information source?
  2. a toothbrush
  3. a copy of People magazine
  4. a Big Mac
  5. a new prescription
  6. a box of tissues

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 149 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App

 

  1. Pregnant Niceae has been shopping for a baby crib. She has visited several sites on the Internet that provide information about cribs and has consulted a book on how to keep her baby safe by a consumer group. Niceae has also asked several new mothers for recommendations. In her decision-making process, Niceae has been using:
  2. marketing-controlled information sources
  3. demographic information sources
  4. nonmarketing-controlled information sources
  5. secondary data sources
  6. internal search sources

ANS: C

Public sources of information, such as Web sites and consumer groups, are known as nonmarketingcontrolled information sources. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Product | TB&E Model Online/Computer

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a marketing-controlled information system?
  2. a television ad for Geico insurance
  3. a NASCAR automobile sponsored by the U.S. Army
  4. a $1-off coupon for Campbells soup
  5. an article in Bicycling magazine about the newest Shimano brand shoes
  6. a real estate agent

ANS: D

The article in Bicycling would NOT have originated with the Shimano organization. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Online/Computer

 

  1. While Robinson was looking at the CDs at Wal-Mart, he was trying to remember the name of the group that sang the song he liked on last night’s episode of Smallville, so he could buy it. Since recording companies pay to have their CDs promoted on television shows that air on the WB, the source of information Robinson is trying to recall is:
  2. a fortuitously evoked set
  3. marketing-controlled
  4. nonmarketing-controlled
  5. unitary data
  6. a credible consideration set

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 148 TOP: AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App

 

  1. Warren loves to go to the beach on his vacation but hates to have to worry about the possibility of hurricanes. As Warren looked for where he should go on vacation this summer, he consulted a publication called Smart Money and learned the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao are not in the hurricane belt. Now he will only consider these island resorts as possible vacation destinations. This group of resort islands is called Warrens:
  2. involvement set
  3. evaluative set
  4. evolved set
  5. evoked set
  6. intuitive set

ANS: D

An evoked set is the set of brands a consumer recalls and would consider as possible purchase choices. PTS: 1 REF: 150 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Melyssa has been given a horse and needs to buy a new Western saddle. She has narrowed the brands of saddles she is considering down to Dale Chavez, Abetta, and Big Horn. These three brands of Western saddles represent Melyssa’s:
  2. evaluative criteria
  3. dissonance suppressors
  4. discretionary discriminators
  5. discriminatory set
  6. evoked set

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 150 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App

 

  1. Zoran wants to buy a pair of sunglasses he can wear when he is riding his bicycle in competitions. He wants sunglasses with a rubberized nose piece, built-in anti-fogging technology, and the ability to block light from all angles. The criteria for his decision appear to be based on:
  2. marketing-controlled information sources
  3. evoked set finalists
  4. routine response behavior
  5. attitudes of others
  6. product attributes

ANS: E

Physical characteristics and traits used in decision making are called product attributes. PTS: 1 REF: 150 OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Another name for evoked set is:
  2. called array
  3. reminder assortment
  4. induced memory
  5. consideration set
  6. reminder induction

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 150 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-2 TYPE: Def

 

  1. People tend to be more satisfied with a purchase if:
  2. they obtain additional information that reinforces their decision
  3. they feel less competent in their daily lives
  4. cognitive dissonance develops
  5. there is inconsistency among opinions and values
  6. there is no further contact with the seller

ANS: A

New information that reinforces positive ideas about the purchase tends to reduce cognitive dissonance and increases satisfaction. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Cecelia is a receptionist and just spent $347 on a new riding saddle for her boyfriend Claude, a weekend cowboy. When she got home with the saddle, she experienced a high level of anxiety about whether she has made the right purchase decision. Cecelia experienced: selective
  2. dissatisfaction
  3. temporal distortion
  4. perceptual disharmony
  5. cognitive dissonance
  6. self-actualization involvement

ANS: D

Cognitive dissonance is the term for postpurchase tension and anxiety. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Pricing | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Miller has just purchased a new Allez A1 Specialized bicycle for $1,000. Miller realizes that the Allez A1 costs more than most bikes, and even at that price it doesn’t come with a set of pedals. Even though other brands of bicycles cost much less than the Allez A1, Miller tells himself that the Allez A1 is more comfortable and has greater durability than most road bikes. As Miller wonders if he made the right purchase decision, he is experiencing:
  2. attribute remorse
  3. cognitive dissonance
  4. evaluation distortion
  5. consumer cognition
  6. perceptual disharmony

ANS: B

Cognitive dissonance involves the realization of the advantages and disadvantages of the purchased product. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. _____ is the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior.
  2. Economic value
  3. Involvement Opportunity cost Temporal cost Perceived level of personal risk OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Def

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 152 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy

 

  1. When the secretary restocks office supplies each month, he places an order for paper, pens, folders, and printer cartridges. Each month the order is the same. This type of buying behavior is called:
  2. buyer’s harmony
  3. situational convenience
  4. routine response behavior
  5. limited decision making
  6. consistent decision making

ANS: C

The buying of frequently purchased, low-cost goods is typically routine response behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 152 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Which of the following activities is most likely to be an example of routine response behavior?
  2. the purchase of a three-week vacation cruise
  3. a homeowners purchase of a new grill for $6,000
  4. the first-time purchase of a copy machine for your home office
  5. the purchase of toilet paper
  6. the purchase of a infant car seat

ANS: D

Only the toilet paper is an example of a low-involvement purchase. PTS: 1 REF: 152 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. _____ is characterized by low involvement, a short time frame, an internal-only information search, and low costs.
  2. Limited decision making
  3. Routine response behavior
  4. Emotional buying
  5. Intensive decision making
  6. Temporally-limited behavior

ANS: B

See Exhibit 5.2. PTS: 1 REF: 152 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Jackson has moved to a new community and can no longer attend his old church. He is currently visiting churches to make a decision about which one best serves his needs. In making his decision, Jackson will engage in _____ consumer decision making.
  2. limited
  3. extended
  4. habitual
  5. classical
  6. routine

ANS: A

Jackson is familiar with churches and the services they provide, but he is unfamiliar with the ones in his new community. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. The electricity for lighting outdoor billboards is powered by transformers. The operator of a company that installs and manages billboards has purchased many such transformers. Today he plans to buy a replacement for one that was destroyed by a recent hurricane. Before making this purchase, he will look at cost and also see if he can find one that is more weatherproof. He wants to make sure he buys the best transformer for the job and that he does not pay more money than he should. In other words, he will engage in _____ decision making.
  2. limited
  3. extended
  4. habitual
  5. classical
  6. routine

ANS: A

The billboard operator is familiar with the product, but he is not immediately knowledgeable about the products currently on the market. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. When a consumer is purchasing an unfamiliar or expensive product, the consumer often uses the ____ process.
  2. extensive decision making
  3. cognitive harmonizing
  4. limited problem solving
  5. strategic behavior
  6. stimulus discrimination

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Nellie’s boss sells merchandise through Internet auctions. He needs to mail a $1,500 hexagonal antique picture frame. He has instructed Nellie to buy packaging that will make sure the oddly shaped frame arrives at its new owner’s home undamaged, but he has not told her how or where she will find such packaging. Given that she frequently has to purchase packaging supplies, what kind of purchase decision process would she most likely employ?
  2. low-involvement problem solving
  3. low-involvement decision making
  4. extensive decision making
  5. limited decision making
  6. routine response behavior

ANS: D

She will most likely use limited because she is familiar with packaging products, but not with one that meets the exact size and protective criteria. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Leah and Jackson Tidwell are thinking about buying a hybrid car, such as the Honda Accord or the Toyota Camry. They will need to evaluate such product attributes as size of engine, riding space, ease of maintenance, and costs as well as their own feelings about environmental protection before making the purchase. The purchase of this type of car will most likely involve:
  2. low-involvement problem solving
  3. low-involvement decision making
  4. extensive decision making
  5. limited decision making
  6. dedicated cognitive behavior

ANS: C

Customers practice extensive decision making when purchasing an unfamiliar or infrequently used product. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. A marketing manager would expect his or her product to be a high-involvement product for most consumers if it:
  2. is a product adaptation of a market leader
  3. is a necessity
  4. has not been purchased before
  5. has low social visibility
  6. requires substantial financial investment

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Comp

 

  1. All of the following factors directly influence consumers’ level of involvement in the purchase process EXCEPT: a. consumers level of education b. previous experience with the product c. financial risk associated with the product d. social visibility of the purchased item e. perceived risk of negative consequences as a result of the purchase ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Comp

 

  1. Your best friend has sought your advice on what type of clothing she should buy for a job interview. If she gets the job, she will be assistant to the producer of her favorite television program. She really wants this job and considers it a once in a lifetime opportunity. By asking your help with her wardrobe, your friend is most likely trying to:
  2. eliminate cognitive dissonance
  3. eliminate the low involvement in the decision
  4. reduce perceived risk of negative consequences
  5. increase the chances of selective exposure
  6. increase the motivation involved in the decision

ANS: C

What is being sought is a reduction in the anxieties felt, because the best friend cannot anticipate the outcomes, but believes there may be negative consequences. PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Ralph played mediocre golf for over twenty years. Then he retired and vowed to improve his golf game by buying one of the new golf clubs that promise increased distance and have a $700 price tag. According to the text, which of the following factors has determined Ralph’s level of involvement in the purchase of a new technologically advanced golf club?
  2. desire for negative consequences
  3. interest and previous experience
  4. self-concept and perception
  5. self-concept and perceived risk of positive consequences
  6. situation and self-concept

ANS: B

The text lists previous experiences, interests, perceived risk of negative consequences, situation and social visibility as factors that determine the level of consumer involvement. PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. A marketer for minor league baseball (MiLB) wants to keep fans who normally attend her teams games from switching to another sport or source of entertainment. To reduce the likelihood that fans will seek out another activity, the marketer might:
  2. create a feeling of postpurchase anxiety for fans purchasing MiLB tickets
  3. offer incentives to get baseball fans to repeatedly purchase tickets for the games until they do it out of habit
  4. increase the social visibility of baseball
  5. raise the price of game tickets relative to the price of similar events to reduce the level of consumer involvement
  6. switch ticket distribution to different outlets

ANS: B

Repeated exposure to a brand or product will make subsequent purchase become routine. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. When Avril went to purchase a birthday card for her new boyfriend, she went to three stores and spent four hours reading over five hundred cards before selecting the perfect one. This card (which cost $3.25) is properly designated a high-involvement product because of:
  2. brand loyalty
  3. situational factors
  4. financial risk
  5. cognitive dissonance
  6. trial investment

ANS: B

Because of the situational factors (high emotional risk), this low-cost card is a high-involvement item in this case. PTS: 1 REF: 154 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Wanda approaches the purchase decision of milk with much lower level of human involvement than the purchase of a new handbag due to:
  2. opportunity costs
  3. the fear of cognitive dissonance
  4. situational factors
  5. the social visibility of the two products
  6. none of the choices influence involvement

ANS: D

Involvement increases as social visibility of a product increases. PTS: 1 REF: 154 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Marketing managers often use in-store promotions to stimulate sales of:
  2. technical products
  3. high-involvement products
  4. high-priced products
  5. industrial products
  6. low-involvement products

ANS: E

Because a low-involvement product has low potential risk for the consumer, it is easier to influence the consumer at the point of purchase. Marketing managers can use attention-getting devices to induce trial purchases. PTS: 1 REF: 154-155 OBJ: 05-4 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion

 

  1. _____ is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and is transmitted from one generation to the next.
  2. Socialization
  3. Customerization
  4. Consumerism
  5. Lifestyle
  6. Culture

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 156 TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Culture plays an important role in shaping and communicating:
  2. economic power
  3. class stratification
  4. self-concepts
  5. values
  6. individual differences

ANS: D

Human interaction from one generation to the next shapes the values held by society. This shaping of societal values is culture. PTS: 1 REF: 156 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def

 

  1. The fact that mothers in Japan feed their babies freeze-dried sardines and rice and most mothers in the United States would not eat a freeze-dried sardine, much less feed it to their babies, indicates how _____ influences the consumer decision-making process.
  2. culture
  3. perception
  4. motivation
  5. family life-cycle stage
  6. reference group membership

ANS: A

Human interaction from one generation to the next shapes the habits of a society. This shaping of habits is a function of culture. PTS: 1 REF: 156 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Physicians need to be aware of how _____ influences consumer behavior. For example with Chinese patients the doctor should remember the Chinese believe foods can assist in healing disease so he or she would need to inquire about food choices and preferences. When dealing with Muslim patients, a doctor may need to share a small bit of personal information about himself or herself to gain the patient’s trust. When dealing with a Russian patient, bad news is given to accompanying friends and relatives, not the patient.
  2. culture
  3. perception
  4. motivation
  5. family life-cycle stage
  6. reference group membership

ANS: A

Human interaction from one generation to the next shapes the habits of a society. This shaping of habits is a function of culture. PTS: 1 REF: 156 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. An enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an alternative mode of conduct is called a(n):
  2. lifestyle
  3. self-concept
  4. attitude
  5. value
  6. perception

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 157 TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Homogeneous groups within a culture that share elements of the overall culture as well as have elements that are unique to that group are called:
  2. autonomous personal units
  3. probability samples
  4. subcultures
  5. normative groups
  6. dissociative groups

ANS: C

PTS: 1 REF: 159 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Which of the following statements about culture as an influence on consumer buying behavior is true?
  2. A firm that understands the culture it is selling to has just as great a probability of selling its product as a firm that has no understanding of the culture.
  3. Some fear the proliferation of the Internet will increase cultural heterogeneity.
  4. Language is an important aspect of culture.
  5. Core values remain the same for all cultures.
  6. All of the statements about culture as an influence on consumer buying behavior are true.

ANS: C

Without understanding a culture, a firm has little chance of selling its products in it. Some fear widespread use of the Internet will increase cultural homogeneity. Core values differ among cultures. PTS: 1 REF: 159 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Product | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be described as a subculture?
  2. electrical engineers
  3. Vietnamese Americans
  4. college students
  5. residents of the Mississippi delta

e.. Quakers

ANS: A

Electrical engineers are a professional group and do not share demographic characteristics (as do most college students). Geographic regions (residents of the Mississippi delta), religious beliefs (Quakers), or ethnic background (Vietnamese Americans) are all considered possible bases for subcultures. PTS: 1 REF: 159-160 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a group of people who are considered nearly equal in community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms.
  2. extended family
  3. subculture
  4. dissociative group
  5. social class
  6. procreational family

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 160 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Def

 

  1. To develop a promotional campaign for vocational education to target working-class consumers, which of the following alternatives might you employ?
  2. a campaign that shows family and community members participating in vocational classes to improve their lives
  3. a campaign emphasizing that those who participate in vocational classes will look better to others
  4. a campaign showing how much participation in vocational classes will improve society as a whole
  5. a campaign showing participants in the vocational classes with the time and money to vacation in far away and exotic places
  6. a campaign appealing to self-actualization needs

ANS: A

The working-class person depends on relatives and community for economic and emotional support. PTS: 1 REF: 161 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. As a marketing tool in the United States, social class:
  2. is useful for lifestyle distinctions between groups
  3. is just a simple measure of income level
  4. offers few insights concerning consumer behavior
  5. is not used because the United States is a classless society
  6. has demonstrated that all classes of consumers shop in the same stores

ANS: A

Lifestyles do differ between the existing classes in the United States, offering useful insights for marketers. PTS: 1 REF: 161 OBJ: 05-5 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Social influences on consumer buying decisions include:
  2. society, culture, and family
  3. reference groups, society, opinion leaders, and family
  4. personality, lifestyle, and reference groups
  5. reference groups, opinion leaders, and family
  6. lifestyle, reference groups, and family

ANS: D

Lifestyle and personality are individual influences. Culture and society are cultural factors. PTS: 1 REF: 162 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Which of the following statements about reference groups is true?
  2. Reference groups stimulate, but do not constrain, consumption behavior.
  3. Reference groups have strong influence on all brands and product purchases.
  4. A person can only belong to one reference group.
  5. Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions.
  6. All of the statements about reference groups are true.

ANS: D

Reference groups directly influence consumer behavior and provide signals (information) for appropriate behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 163-164 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A direct reference group is composed of:
  2. face-to-face membership groups that touch people’s lives directly
  3. only friends, neighbors, and relatives
  4. role models on television and in the movies
  5. people the individual does not want to be associated with
  6. people an individual aspires to be like

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 163 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Elliott loves to compete in mountain biking. He subscribes to all the bicycling magazines and reads them as soon as they arrive each month. Champion bikers like Golden Brainard, Chris Sheppard, and Carl Swenson are often used in the product advertisements in these magazines. The ads convince Elliott to buy these products because these champions are a(n) _____ group for Elliott.
  2. secondary reference
  3. primary reference
  4. aspirational
  5. nonaspirational
  6. direct reference

ANS: C

Aspirational groups are those groups someone would like to join but of which he or she is currently not a member. PTS: 1 REF: 163 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Jared is looking for a new house, and a realtor has suggested he look at homes in the Whispering Pines subdivision, where housing prices start at $500,000. Jared, however, would rather move into a more modest neighborhood. He thinks spending that much money on a house is wasteful and materialistic. The people who live in Whispering Pines are best described as part of Jared’s _____ group.
  2. nonaspirational
  3. direct reference
  4. membership
  5. integrated
  6. aspirational

ANS: A

A nonaspirational group is a group the consumer attempts to maintain distance from and does not want to imitate in purchase behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 164 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Opinion leaders are:
  2. wealthy, well-educated individuals
  3. experts on all high-involvement consumer goods
  4. usually the same individuals for all social classes
  5. people who influence others
  6. easy to locate and target

ANS: D

An opinion leader can influence the purchasing behavior of others in the reference group. However, opinion leaders are not always influential, not the same for all social classes, and not always wealthy or well educated. Opinion leaders rapidly change and are a casual, often inconspicuous, phenomenon. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. A few years ago, the Australian footwear and accessories brand UGG was an unknown brand in the United States. A few tabloid shots of actresses like Kate Hudson and Cameron Diaz parading around in their UGG boots were instrumental in making the brand popular in the U.S. market; sales havent let up since. Diaz and Hudson more than likely acted as:

opinion leaders laggards early instigators gatekeepers aspirational adopters

ANS: A

The target market for UGG wants to emulate Diaz and Hudson. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. You are the brand manager for a new line of allergy relief drugs. Which of the following methods might you employ to use opinion leadership/reference groups to help stimulate demand for your products?
  2. Create ads that show the typical consumer performing a healthy lifestyle activity.
  3. Develop a promotional campaign that tells customers they “deserve to use” these products.
  4. Drop the price of your new products to the point where customers will realize they are getting a bargain.
  5. Develop a promotional campaign that emphasizes safety and security needs being fulfilled by these health-care products.
  6. Use a series of ads showing different health-care associations and societies endorsing the use of these health-care products.

ANS: E

The endorsements use the sanctioning or referral power of sources possessing high credibility. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Becca, a college student, tends to buy the same brands of toothpaste, shampoo, and deodorant as her _____, which is often the strongest source of group influence upon the individual for many product purchases.
  2. psychographic group
  3. social class
  4. Family
  5. Subculture
  6. dissociative group

ANS: C

The family is the most important social institution for many consumers. PTS: 1 REF: 166 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Because her mother only went to the supermarket once a month, this is how Moniq prefers to do her grocery shopping. One of the reasons Moniq is such an efficient shopper is that, like her mother, Moniq believes, “Waste not, want not.” The passing down of norms and values to Moniq is an example of:
  2. consumerism
  3. the socialization process
  4. acculturation
  5. the roles opinion leaders play in business decision making
  6. the role of society in consumer decision making

ANS: B

The socialization process is the passing down of cultural values and norms to children. PTS: 1 REF: 166 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Madison announced to her family last night that she wanted a pair of inline skates. Her sister Bailey said she thought it was a stupid idea. Their mother Wanda said Madison deserved a special treat for winning the science fair. Because her father Ned said nothing, Madison knew she was not getting the skates. In terms of the roles played by family members in the consumer decision-making process:
  2. Madison was the initiator, and Ned had no role at all.
  3. Bailey was the initiator, and Wanda was the decision maker.
  4. Madison was an influencer, and Wanda was the decision maker.
  5. Madison was the initiator, and Ned was the decision maker.
  6. Madison was the initiator, and Bailey had no role at all.

ANS: D

Madison suggested the purchase and was the initiator. Wanda and Bailey both tried to influence the purchase. Ned was the decision maker. PTS: 1 REF: 166 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. A pet food manufacturer has introduced a new vegetarian cat food and spent a large amount of money on the packaging, nationwide television advertising, coupons, and store displays. After a successful introduction period with sales higher than expected, sales suddenly dropped off dramatically. Subsequent research revealed that cats quickly became tired of the food and refused to eat it. The pet food manufacturer that forgot cats can also play an important role in the family decision process as a(n):
  2. instigator
  3. consumer
  4. decision maker
  5. purchaser
  6. selector

ANS: B

Here consumer is used to denote the user of the good or service. This question emphasizes how wide a difference there can be between consumer and purchaser. PTS: 1 REF: 166-167 OBJ: 05-6 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. All of the following are examples of individual factors that affect the decision-making process for consumers EXCEPT:
  2. gender
  3. age
  4. reference groups
  5. lifestyles
  6. personality

ANS: C

Reference groups are a social influence. PTS: 1 REF: 167 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Women account for about 50 percent of the luxury car market. Male car designers at Cadillac are going about their work with paper clips on their fingers to simulate what it feels like to women with long fingernails to operate buttons, knobs, and other interior features. They are responding to _____ influences on consumer buying decisions.
  2. cultural
  3. social
  4. physiological
  5. psychological
  6. individual

ANS: E

Gender is an individual influence on consumer buying decisions. PTS: 1 REF: 167 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Product | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. _____ is an orderly series of stages in which consumers’ attitudes and behavioral tendencies change over time.
  2. Socialization
  3. The wheel of consumerism
  4. The family life cycle
  5. Lifestyle consumption
  6. Acculturation

ANS: C

PTS: 1 REF: 168-169 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def

 

  1. An individual’s _____ is a composite of psychological makeup and environmental forces. It provides consistency to an individual’s reactions to situations.
  2. acculturation
  3. socialization
  4. personality
  5. autonomy
  6. attitude

ANS: C

Autonomy is a common personality trait. PTS: 1 REF: 169 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. _____ is how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and selfevaluations.
  2. Socialization
  3. Personality
  4. Socialization
  5. Normalization
  6. Self-concept

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 169 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Sam knows that if he had been allowed to be an actor, he would have been as successful as his favorite actor Tom Hanks. He feels his acting ability and his stage presence are as least as good as Tom Hanks. Since Sam really admires Hanks, he has recently grown his hair as Hanks did for his role in The Da Vinci Code. Sams new look reflects his:
  2. superego
  3. compliant orientation
  4. ideal self-image
  5. real self-image
  6. socialization process

ANS: C

Ideal self-image represents the way an individual would like to be. PTS: 1 REF: 169 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Claytons purchase behavior is influenced by his love of rodeo, his patriotism, a fascination with agriculture, his love of country music, and his belief that everyone needs to enjoy life. All of these things are part of which personal influence on the consumer decision-making process?
  2. attitude
  3. personality
  4. beliefs
  5. lifestyle
  6. experiential learning

ANS: D

Lifestyle is defined by one’s activities, interests, and opinions. PTS: 1 REF: 170 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. One method of categorizing consumers refers to a large group of older men (called Rugged Traditionalists) who believe in the traditional, old-school gender roles, who prefer NASCAR to all other types of sports, who would use a straight razor for shaving if they could find one, and prize convenience above all other qualities in a retail store. The Rugged Traditionalist is described in terms of how _____ influences affect his consumer decision making.
  2. psychological
  3. individual
  4. social
  5. situational
  6. cultural

ANS: B The preference for NASCAR and the belief in traditional gender roles are both lifestyle descriptors. Lifestyle, personality, and self-concept are all individual influences. PTS: 1 REF: 167 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Studies of how consumers relate to Internet entertainment classify them into nine different groups. One category is “Mouse Potatoes,” who spend most of their time online, who want the most current gadgets, and who believe the world pictured in the cartoon The Jetsons will someday exist. This is a description of the _____ of “Mouse Potatoes.”
  2. self-image
  3. cultural bias
  4. lifestyle
  5. demographics
  6. socialization process

ANS: C

Lifestyles are defined by activities, interests, and opinions. PTS: 1 REF: 170 OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Online/Computer

 

  1. To analyze consumer lifestyles, marketers look at consumers’:
  2. activities, interests, and opinions
  3. behavior, personality, and social class
  4. geography, demography, and psychographics
  5. income, gender, and life objectives
  6. activities, personality, and demography

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 170 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def

 

  1. _____ is the analytical technique used to examine consumer lifestyles and to categorize consumers.
  2. An acculturation analysis
  3. A consumer audit
  4. Socialization
  5. Psychographics
  6. Demography

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 170 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-7 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Several years ago, Procter & Gamble added bleach to its laundry detergent Oxydol, but people didn’t believe it was different because it looked the same. So P&G added blue beads to the normally white detergent. Though the blue beads had nothing to do with the bleaching action, consumers could “see” the difference. In this case, consumers were organizing stimuli into a meaningful picture. This process is called:
  2. exposure
  3. perception
  4. retention
  5. cognition
  6. selection

ANS: B

The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the stimuli that are bombarding consumers daily is called perception. Color is a cue that plays a key role in a consumer’s perception. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Sixty percent of drinkers of whiskey in Great Britain are over 50. The dangers associated with an aging market are obvious. Whiskey manufacturers have taken staid traditional symbols of their whiskey and placed them in incongruous situations to appeal to a youthful market. Which psychological influence on consumers’ purchase of whiskey are the manufacturers trying to change?
  2. value
  3. perception
  4. reference group
  5. personality
  6. age

ANS: B

Only perception is an example of a psychological influence. In addition, the manufacturers are trying to change how young consumers perceive whiskey as an alcoholic beverage. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Sixty percent of drinkers of whiskey in Great Britain are over 50. The dangers of an aging market are obvious. Whiskey manufacturers have taken staid traditional symbols of their whiskey and placed them in incongruous situations to appeal to a youthful market. If young consumers saw these attempts to influence their purchasing behavior as ridiculous because they believe whiskey is an old person’s drink, they would miss the advertising message the manufacturers hoped to send. _____ would have occurred.
  2. Perceptual generalization
  3. Stimulus discrimination
  4. Perceptual discrimination
  5. Selective distortion
  6. Stimulus generalization

ANS: D

Young consumers would miss the intended meaning of the communication because they would distort its meaning based on their beliefs. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. A few years ago, Toro introduced a small, lightweight snowblower called the Snow Pup. Even though the product worked great, sales failed to meet expectations because consumers perceived the name to mean that the Snow Pup was a toy or too light to do any serious snow removal. This is how _____ can influence the consumer decision-making process.
  2. selective distortion
  3. incorrect problem recognition
  4. lifestyle dissonance
  5. asocialization
  6. selective exposure

ANS: A Researchers have found that cues such as brand names influence consumers’ perception of products and brands. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. On any given day, a person may be subjected to over 2,500 advertising messages but may only be aware of 10 to 20 of them. This is called:
  2. selective distortion
  3. selective learning
  4. sporadic reinforcement
  5. intermittent selectivity
  6. selective exposure

ANS: E

Consumers use selective exposure to decide which stimuli to select (attend to) and which to ignore. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Sami Lin is developing an advertising campaign targeted to the same young audience that watched the X Games (a weeklong competition in a variety of extreme sports) on television. Which of the following actions might Lin take to help enhance the chances her targeted customers will pay attention to her ads?
  2. Use neutral sounds and colors that are similar to the programs the ads follow, so there is not much difference between the program and the ads. b. Create sexy ads to break through the ad clutter.
  3. Create ads that emphasize the least crucial attributes of the brand to get customers to think about the ads.
  4. Use elderly celebrity spokespersons to endorse the products as a grandparent would.
  5. Present the ads in a foreign language.

ANS: B

Research has indicated that sexier ads are more memorable among the younger audience. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Promotion

 

  1. Manning bought a Schwinn Circuit bike for $1,300. After the purchase, he read an article about bicycles made by the Giant Bicycle Company, which makes a bike with most of the same features as the Schwinn Circuit. Manning processed this newly received information to make it more consistent with his prior opinion that the Schwinn is better than the Giant bike. Manning engaged in:
  2. intermittent reinforcement b. faulty selectivity
  3. selective distortion
  4. selective retention
  5. selective exposure

ANS: C

Selective distortion occurs when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. When consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs, it is called:
  2. selective distortion
  3. selective dissonance
  4. intermittent reinforcement
  5. selective retention
  6. selective exposure

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 171 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Families of police officers often alter information they hear about officers who die in the line of duty. This _____ allows them to live and function while their loved one is engaged in a potentially dangerous job without constant anxiety.
  2. selective retention
  3. selective distortion selective exposure faulty selectivity adaptive stimulus

ANS: B

Selective distortion involves changing or distorting the communication message to make the message seemingly agree with preconceived opinion. PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Cassandra, an accounting major, read an article stating that accounting graduates are receiving the highest starting salary offers for business majors. The article also stated that marketing majors start with lower salaries but surpass all other majors’ salaries within ten years. A week later Cassandra doesn’t remember reading this last part of the article, just the first part. This is an example of:
  2. selective distortion
  3. selective exposure
  4. intermittent reinforcement
  5. selective socialization
  6. selective retention

ANS: E

Selective retention is the process whereby a consumer remembers only information that supports personal feelings or beliefs. PTS: 1 REF: 172 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. _____ occurs when consumers remember only information that supports their personal feelings or beliefs.
  2. Intermittent reinforcement
  3. Selective exposure
  4. Selective retention
  5. Faulty selectivity
  6. Selective distortion

ANS: C

PTS: 1 REF: 172 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. In the late 1990s, DaimlerChrysler established a department solely to work on the sound of its car doors. The company understood the connection consumers make between sound and quality. This was one of the ways the automobile manufacturer was attuned to consumers:
  2. self-image
  3. personality
  4. lifestyle
  5. perception
  6. reference groups

ANS: D

The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the stimuli that are bombarding consumers daily is called perception. (According to a global research project regarding the role of the senses in creating brand experiences, sight is the most important, followed by smell. Touch ranked lowest.) PTS: 1 REF: 171-172 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. An ad for Boys & Girls Club of America calls it “the positive place for kids” and shows a sample membership card. To which of Maslow’s needs does this ad most likely appeal?
  2. physiological
  3. social
  4. esteem
  5. safety
  6. self-actualization

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 173 | 174 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App

 

  1. Ranked from the lowest to the highest level, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model includes:
  2. safety, esteem, social, physiological, and self-actualization needs
  3. physiological, social, esteem, economic, and self-actualization needs
  4. psychological, safety, economic, esteem, and social needs
  5. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
  6. safety, economic, social, esteem, and self-development needs

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 173 | 174 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, the first needs most people would try to satisfy are their _____ needs.
  2. safety
  3. physiological
  4. economic
  5. esteem
  6. derived

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 173 | 174 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Moss Security is a home security business. Its slogan, Alarmed? You should be, is designed to appeal to consumers:
  2. esteem needs
  3. economic needs
  4. safety needs
  5. physiological needs
  6. social needs

ANS: C

The security companys selling point is the safety it provides. PTS: 1 REF: 173 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion

 

  1. Advocacy groups lobbying for support money may be inflating the number of people who suffer or die from particular maladies such as AIDS, cancer, and Alzheimer’s. These groups are using fear as a marketing tool to specifically target the _____ needs in Maslow’s hierarchy.
  2. esteem
  3. safety
  4. physiological
  5. social
  6. self-actualization

ANS: B

These fear appeals target safety needs. PTS: 1 REF: 173 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Ralph played mediocre golf for over 20 years. Then he retired and vowed to improve his golf game by buying one of the new golf clubs that promise increased distance and have a $700 price tag. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Ralph is most likely trying to satisfy his _____ needs.
  2. social
  3. safety
  4. self-actualization
  5. physiological
  6. psychological

ANS: C

Ralph is engaged in a self-improvement process. PTS: 1 REF: 174-175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. The slogan used by the manufacturer of Jaguar automobiles, Don’t dream it. Drive it. was intended to appeal to consumers:
  2. physiological needs
  3. social needs
  4. safety needs
  5. esteem needs
  6. self-actualization needs

ANS: E

The slogan indicates that the ownership of the car will allow the user to realize his or her full potential. PTS: 1 REF: 174-175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. If an advertiser wanted to create ads for a restaurant that stimulate the self-actualization motivation, it would create ads that:
  2. emphasize hunger
  3. emphasize that only those people who want to tell others they have risen to the top of their profession use the restaurant
  4. inform consumers about the cleanliness of the food preparation areas and procedures
  5. show people enjoying others’ company while eating in the restaurant
  6. indicate eating in the restaurant is what “you have earned and deserve”

ANS: E

Self-actualization needs stress self-fulfillment and self-expression, or reaching the point in life at which “people are what they feel they should be.” PTS: 1 REF: 174-175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion

 

  1. The process that creates changes in behavior is called:
  2. selective adaptation
  3. learning involvement manipulation attitude adjustment behavior normalization ef

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: D175 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy

 

  1. Manufacturers of consumer goods often give away trial sizes of new products to encourage:
  2. experiential learning
  3. selective perception
  4. continuous reinforcement
  5. conceptual learning
  6. problem recognition

ANS: A Trial behavior reinforces experiential learning, often leading to repeat behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Starbucks coffee company introduced four premium flavors of Starbucks ice cream hoping consumers would transfer their love of Starbucks coffee to ice cream. With only a little publicity and a one-time limited outdoor campaign, quarts of Starbucks coffee ice cream flew off the shelves. Starbucks used _____ to promote its new frozen product.
  2. stimulus discrimination
  3. selective retention
  4. stimulus generalization
  5. social learning
  6. product reinforcement

ANS: C Stimulus generalization occurs when one response (positive attitude for a product) is extended to a second, similar stimulus (new product, same brand). PTS: 1 REF: 175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Kent Longino is the marketing vice-president for Andersen, one of the largest manufacturers of windows in the world. He is directing the introduction of a glass-encased sunroom that can be assembled in a weekend. He wants to capitalize on Andersen’s existing reputation. Which learning method should he attempt to stimulate when introducing the new product?
  2. conceptual learning
  3. experiential learning
  4. repetition learning
  5. stimulus generalization
  6. stimulus discrimination

ANS: D

Marketers often use a successful, well-known brand name for a family of products because it gives consumers familiarity with and knowledge about each product in the brand family. PTS: 1 REF: 175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Celestial Seasonings is a well-recognized brand of tea. It has differentiated itself from traditional teas by producing herbal teas and teas using the more exotic white tea leaves. It has recently introduced Celestial Seasonings Tea Dreams ice cream, a product it hopes will be successful due to consumers’ awareness of the brand. Celestial Seasonings is relying on _____ to make its new product a success.
  2. conceptual learning
  3. experiential learning
  4. repetition learning
  5. stimulus generalization
  6. stimulus discrimination

ANS: D

Marketers often use a successful, well-known brand name for a family of products because it gives consumers familiarity with and knowledge about each product in the brand family. PTS: 1 REF: 175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. TAG Heuer is a prestigious brand of watch that is sold as a luxury product. It has a reputation based on quality and attention to details. When the company introduces new timepieces, it can count on a wellestablished market already existing for the new product due to:
  2. perceptual generalization
  3. stimulus discrimination
  4. perceptual discrimination
  5. selective distortion
  6. stimulus generalization

ANS: E

This is an example of stimulus generalization. Its consumers assume that any product with the TAG Heuer brand is worth purchasing. PTS: 1 REF: 175 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. There are many travel agencies in the world. One of the largest is Thomas Cook, which is in England. The slogan the travel agency has used for years is, “Don’t just book it. Thomas Cook it.” The slogan implies that if you are making any travel plans, you should call the Thomas Cook agency and not some other agency. What learning theory is Thomas Cook relying on with this advertising claim?
  2. selective retention
  3. stimulus discrimination
  4. perceptual generalization
  5. selective generalization
  6. stimulus generalization

ANS: B

Stimulus discrimination occurs when consumers learn to differentiate among similar products. PTS: 1 REF: 176 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. _____ is the ability to differentiate between similar objects such as packages of different brands of aspirin. It is a learned behavior.
  2. Incentive discrimination
  3. Stimulus generalization
  4. Selective perception
  5. Selective generalization
  6. Stimulus discrimination

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 176 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Christian Pawl holds the opinion that the Black Diamond Skylight three-person three-season tent is the most amazing tent on the market. He thinks the tent is equally good in pouring west coast rain or sweltering desert heat. Pawl is so convinced of the tents versatility that he would have been willing to pay much more than the $430 retail price of this tent. This is a description of Pawls _____ about the Black Diamond tent
  2. beliefs
  3. attitudes
  4. standards
  5. motives
  6. valuations

ANS: A

A belief is often developed about the attributes of a product. Attitudes, however, are more complex and encompass values. PTS: 1 REF: 176 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Connors Bros., a maritime seafood products manufacturer, plans to market its sardines to Ontario consumers through a campaign pushing the little fish as a positive food choice. The campaign aims to nullify the notion that sardines are boring by stressing their health benefits and their savory qualities. Connor Bros. is trying to:
  2. change negative beliefs about product attributes
  3. introduce new product attributes
  4. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes
  5. discover attitudes toward its product’s attributes
  6. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 177 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. An attitude toward a product is:
  2. easy to change
  3. a person’s point of view about the product
  4. the same as a belief
  5. the same as “intention to buy”
  6. of short duration

ANS: B

“Point of view” is a simpler way to state “learned tendency to respond consistently.” Both denote an opinion, which can change over time. PTS: 1 REF: 176 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. _____ tend to be more enduring and complex than beliefs, because they rest on an individuals value system.
  2. Motivational cues
  3. Cultures
  4. Lifestyles
  5. Perceptions
  6. Attitudes

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 176 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Def

 

  1. Many consumers think of Post Grape-Nuts cereal as a product their grandfathers ate. This makes it unacceptable to a large part of the consumer market. Without changing the product, Post ran a series of Grape-Nuts ads that described the sweet, nutty taste of the cereal and encouraged people to try it as a topping on yogurt for something good to eat. Post was trying to:
  2. add new beliefs about product attributes
  3. discover attitudes toward the product attributes
  4. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes
  5. appeal to existing beliefs about product attributes
  6. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes

ANS: A

Existing negative beliefs about product attributes are the most firmly entrenched and difficult to change. PTS: 1 REF: 178 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: Comp TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. A few years ago, tea was a product with relatively little growth and was considered to be a product for the old and the middle-aged. Then tea manufacturers started promoting the health benefits of tea. Since the introduction of the research on how tea provides the body with useful anti-oxidants, tea consumption has increased by more than 25 percent, and it appears its market share will continue to grow, especially among young women in their twenties. This is an illustration of how promotion can:
  2. change the importance of beliefs about product attributes
  3. change beliefs about product attributes
  4. add new beliefs about product attributes
  5. reinforce current beliefs about product attributes
  6. discover consumer needs about product attributes

ANS: B

The companies were attempting to change beliefs about a product attribute from negative to positive. PTS: 1 REF: 177 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. In the 1970s, Mobil ran an extensive campaign to convince drivers that detergent additives to Mobils gasoline actually cleaned car engines. Mobils campaign was an attempt to:
  2. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes
  3. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes
  4. appeal to existing beliefs about product attributes
  5. discover attitudes toward its product’s attributes
  6. create new beliefs about the product attributes

ANS: E

Mobil was trying to make customers see it as different from other brands of fuel. PTS: 1 REF: 178 OBJ: 05-8 TYPE: App TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product

 

New Car Purchase

Zena has been promoted to vice-president at the management consulting firm she works for. Her status has led her to consider the need for a new car. Her trusty little Volkswagen Beetle had over 100,000 miles on it and no longer seemed appropriate. Susanne, another vice-president, suggested that Zena consider a car produced in the United States because the consulting firm she works for has a policy of supporting U.S. businesses. Zena began her quest for a new car by visiting several car dealers and obtaining pamphlets on the models she is considering. She also made a trip to the library to study Consumer Reports magazine and other consumer rating publications to see what the experts think. Finally, after evaluating all options, Zena decided to purchase a new Chrysler. She believes the car is a good fit with her new image and position in her company. Now that she has purchased the car, she has seen more advertisements touting its features than she ever noticed before. She also has noticed many models of her car on the road. Zena thinks the fact that so many others are driving the same model car as hers is proof that she made a good decision.

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. Zena’s visits to the dealers and to the library best represent which step of the consumer decision-making process?
  2. need recognition
  3. information search
  4. evaluation of alternatives
  5. stimulus
  6. postpurchase behavior

ANS: B

These activities best represent information search. Zena must collect the information before she can begin evaluating alternatives. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. In noticing similar cars on the road and advertising supporting her decision, Zena is reducing feelings of inner tension. The feelings of inner tension are called:
  2. selective retention
  3. perceptual distortion
  4. postpurchase action
  5. cognitive dissonance
  6. response attitudes

ANS: D

Cognitive dissonance is the term for postpurchase tension and anxiety. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. Which type of consumer buying decision does Zena’s purchase represent?
  2. routine response
  3. limited decision making
  4. extensive decision making
  5. impulse buying
  6. motivational response

ANS: C

Consumers practice extensive decision making when purchasing unfamiliar, expensive products or an infrequently bought item. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. Zena spent a considerable amount of time and effort on her new car purchase. This suggests the car is a(n) _____ product for Zena.
  2. impulse
  3. low-involvement
  4. routine response
  5. nondurable
  6. high-involvement

ANS: E

A consumer who deliberately searches for information about products and brands in order to evaluate them thoroughly is most likely engaging in high-involvement decision making. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. Susanne has influenced Zena’s choice of a new automobile. In this instance, Susanne is acting as a(n):
  2. dissociative reference
  3. purchase catalyst
  4. gatekeeper
  5. social reference
  6. opinion leader

ANS: E

Susanne is acting as an opinion leader in that she represents the reference group Zena is now a part of. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to New Car Purchase. If you evaluate Zena’s choice of a Chrysler based on Maslow’s needs hierarchy, the car was bought to meet _____ needs.
  2. self-actualization
  3. security
  4. social and esteem
  5. safety
  6. physiological

ANS: C

Zena purchased the car to meet social needs. The car provides Zena with a sense of belonging in her new position. PTS: 1 REF: 173-174 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

Coca-Cola

It is almost 100 degrees outside, and Ed is on his way to the supermarket to buy groceries. His air conditioner is broken, so he is hot and thirsty. Ed notices a billboard featuring an ice-cold Coca-Cola. Ed remembers he is out of Coke. Once in the store, Ed heads straight for the soft-drink aisle and picks up a twelve-pack of Coke.

 

  1. Refer to Coca-Cola. Ed’s Coke purchase best represents which type of consumer buying decision?
  2. routine response behavior
  3. limited decision making extensive decision making situation convenience motivational response

ANS: A

The fact Ed is out of Coca-Cola suggests it is a frequently purchased product, typically a routine response behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 152 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Coca-Cola. Ed knows Michael Jordan (a former basketball all-star) drinks Gatorade, and he thinks he can be more like Jordan if he drinks it. Because Ed very much wants to be like Jordan, he purchases Gatorade in addition to Coke. In this example, Michael Jordan is acting as a(n):
  2. purchase catalyst
  3. opinion leader
  4. consumer advocate
  5. dissociative reference
  6. cultural icon

ANS: B

An opinion leader is a person who influences others. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Coca-Cola. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, which need was Ed trying to satisfy when he purchased the Coke?
  2. self-actualization
  3. esteem
  4. safety
  5. social
  6. physiological

ANS: E

Thirst is a physiological need on Maslow’s hierarchy. PTS: 1 REF: 173 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

Day Care

Fiona is considering a day-care facility for her five-week-old daughter Kate. She has been visiting daycare centers for the past two weeks and has interviewed caregivers at eight different centers. It is extremely important to Fiona that Kate be stimulated intellectually and fed according to schedule. After considering all eight day-care centers, Fiona chose PerfectCare. While she is quite pleased with her choice, she does continue to wonder if she made the correct decision.

 

  1. Refer to Day Care. Fiona’s visits to the daycare centers and interviews with the caregivers represent which step of the consumer decision process?
  2. postpurchase behavior
  3. stimulus
  4. evaluation of alternatives
  5. information rejection
  6. need recognition

ANS: C

These activities best represent evaluation of alternatives. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Day Care. Fiona’s uncertainty about whether she made the correct decision and the feelings that go along with this uncertainty are called:
  2. selective retention
  3. perceptual distortion
  4. postpurchase action
  5. cognitive dissonance
  6. routine response

ANS: D

Cognitive dissonance is the term for postpurchase tension and anxiety. PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Day Care. Fiona spent a significant amount of time and effort in selecting the day-care center for Kate. This suggests the center is a(n) _____ product for Fiona.
  2. impulse
  3. low-involvement
  4. routine response
  5. convenience
  6. high-involvement

ANS: E

A consumer who deliberately searches for information about products and evaluates alternatives thoroughly is most likely engaging in high-involvement decision making. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Technology | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Day Care. Fiona’s selection of a day-care facility represents which type of consumer buying decision?
  2. routine response
  3. limited decision making
  4. extensive decision making
  5. impulse buying
  6. motivational response

ANS: C

Consumers practice extensive decision making when purchasing products that are extremely important to them. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Day Care. Shannon, Fiona’s best friend, recommended PerfectCare because she takes her daughter there. Shannon was acting as a(n):
  2. family member
  3. opinion leader dissociative reference busybody gatekeeper

ANS: B An opinion leader is a person who influences others. PTS: 1 REF: 165 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

Interface

Interface, a manufacturer of floor covering products, has recently entered into an agreement with Cargill, Inc. and Dow Chemical Company to develop a carpeting manufactured from corn fiber, rather than the traditional nylon. Interface hopes to develop a biodegradable carpet tile that will be sold to the public at prices only slightly higher than nylon carpet tiles. Interface’s CEO has repeatedly said the mission of his company is to look for manufacturing materials that are renewable and are not petroleum dependent.

 

  1. Refer to Interface. A consumer who was in the market for floor covering would be most likely to locate information on the biodegradable floor tiles during which stage of the consumer decisionmaking process?
  2. evaluation of alternatives
  3. internal information search
  4. external information search
  5. need recognition
  6. postpurchase behavior

ANS: C

The information would come from an outside source since it is a new product. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Interface. Which of the following is the BEST example of a nonmarketing-controlled information source for floor tiling?
  2. a store display showing the various colors of tiles available
  3. an ad in Better Homes & Gardens for floor tiles
  4. a salesperson at a store that specializes in floor coverings
  5. a brochure explaining why the corn-based floor tiles are superior to nylon ones
  6. a discussion with co-workers about the best floor tiles to buy

ANS: E

Any kind of word-of-mouth communication or discussion about a product would be an example of nonmarketing-controlled information sources. PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Interface. To reduce potential _____, Interface could include a letter in every box of cornfiber carpet tiles congratulating the buyer on helping to protect the environment.
  2. cognitive dissonance
  3. buyer repentance
  4. consumer affectation
  5. affective dissonance
  6. consumer cognition

ANS: A

Postpurchase messages are one way marketing managers can reduce cognitive dissonance. PTS: 1 REF: 151-152 OBJ: 05-3 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Interface. Which of the following is an example of a culture influence on consumer buying decisions?
  2. personality of the buyer
  3. how much the buyer knows about actions he or she can take to save the environment
  4. lifestyle of the buyer
  5. the buyer’s motivation for buying the corn-fiber carpet tile
  6. none of these are examples of cultural influences

ANS: E

Personality and lifestyle are examples of individual factors. Knowledge and motivation are examples of psychological factors. PTS: 1 REF: 156 OBJ: 05-5 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Interface. Interface is hoping its sales will be driven by the enduring belief that people should protect our environment for our children. This belief is an example of how _____ influence(s) consumer buying decisions.
  2. political
  3. culture
  4. individuality
  5. psychological needs
  6. family

ANS: B This belief that people should protect and save the environment is an example of a cultural value. PTS: 1 REF: 156 OBJ: 05-5 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

Women’s Athletic Wear

Between 1987 and 2000, the market for women’s athletic wear increased by more than $3 billion while the market for men’s athletic wear remained unchanged. Women are no longer satisfied with sporting goods stores that act as if they are serving women’s needs by carrying jogging bras and biking shorts and otherwise assuming women can use male gear. Like men, women want a product that will increase their performance, but they also want something else–a product that will be in tune with their bodies.

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. One of the biggest differences between men and women consumers is that men tend to stay loyal to a store. Women are much more ready to shop around–perhaps, because they demand more from their products than men. Andrea wants to start jogging, but she has been told she needs to find a well-fitting jogging bra. Andrea is at the first stage of the:
  2. product differentiation
  3. consumer decision-making process
  4. market segment
  5. product positioning
  6. selective perception

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. Andrea purchased a copy of Fit magazine because it contained an article about selecting the right jogging bra. The acquiring of the magazine indicates Andrea is engaged in:
  2. finding an external information source
  3. deciding whether she has a want or a need
  4. locating an internal information source
  5. avoiding information generalization
  6. avoiding problems with selective retention

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 148 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. Andrea has decided she will buy either a Nike or a Reebok bra because these brands are designed to offer the greatest support for women athletes. These two brands would be her:
  2. cognitive choices
  3. perceptual favorites
  4. choice criteria
  5. evoked set
  6. comparative set

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 150 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. One of the problems in the past with women’s athletic wear was that the clothing was not designed to fit the female anatomy. Women would buy the clothing needed to enjoy a sport and learn about its inadequacies after they had worn the item for a while. In other words, many women in years past experienced:
  2. evoked dissatisfaction
  3. perceptual inaptitude
  4. elapsed motivation
  5. a conditioned reflex
  6. cognitive dissonance

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 151 OBJ: 05-3 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. Which of the following factors influence how involved women are in the purchase of athletic gear?
  2. level of participation in the sport
  3. perceived risks from buying ill-fitted helmets, shoes, etc.
  4. how well athletics clothes bought in the past have fit
  5. whether the sports is done in a group or individual setting
  6. all of the choices influence involvement

ANS: E

PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. The enduring belief that it is a person’s responsibility to take good care of his or her body and engage in regular exercise to ensure its well-being is an example of a:
  2. perceptual dilemma value marketing-information source cognitive attitude conditioned impulse OBJ: 05-5

ANS: B

PTS: 1 REF: 157 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. The use of tennis stars Venus and Serena Williams in Nike ads indicates how marketers use the concept of _____ to promote products to women.
  2. opinion leaders
  3. cognitive satisfaction
  4. personal influences
  5. situational influences
  6. lifestyle definition

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 165 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-6

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. To capture the female market for sports attire, sporting goods retailers are trying to change customers’ _____ the stores by sprucing up their stores, brightening interiors, and setting up women’s sections in the fronts of the stores.
  2. cognitions about
  3. subliminal interactions with
  4. perceptions of
  5. selective motivation in
  6. evoked attitudes toward

ANS: C

PTS: 1 REF: 171 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Creativity

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. The fact that many women do not develop store loyalty and perceive all athletic clothes retailers to be similar indicates a tendency to engage in:
  2. stimulus generalization
  3. subliminal perception
  4. generalized learning
  5. stimulus discrimination
  6. selective distortion

ANS: A

PTS: 1 REF: 175-176 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer OBJ: 05-8

 

  1. Refer to Women’s Athletic Wear. To reach the women’s market, Nike has created Nike Goddess stores that it hopes will offer the atmosphere and merchandise to attract and keep female athletes coming back. Nike is trying to cause its women customers to use:
  2. stimulus generalization
  3. subliminal perception
  4. generalized learning
  5. stimulus discrimination
  6. selective distortion

ANS: D

PTS: 1 REF: 176 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Promotion | TB&E Model Customer

 

ESSAY 1. Why do marketers study consumer behavior? ANS: A marketer must understand consumer behavior to develop a proper marketing mix. A thorough knowledge of consumer behavior can assist the marketer in selecting the proper target market according to values, lifestyles, and demographic and social characteristics. Furthermore, an understanding of culture and personality variables can also reduce uncertainty when creating a marketing mix. PTS: 1 REF: 146 OBJ: 05-1 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 2. Assume the your current small television set (for which you paid $69.99 several years ago) has developed wavy lines across the screen and makes the people in your favorite programs sound as though they are using cheap walkie-talkie radios. Therefore, you have decided to work all summer to save money for the ultimate $1,200 high-definition television with surround sound. Trace the steps of your decision process for purchasing your new television. ANS: For this high-involvement decision process, you would use extensive decision-making and go through the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. NEED RECOGNITION: Your present television has wavy lines and poor sound quality, and you desire a new television set. INFORMATION SEARCH: You check both internal and external sources of information such as your own knowledge, opinions of peers, information from magazines, and the advice of television sales personnel. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES: You consider product attributes of various television brands and models in an evoked set. These attributes might include sound quality, looks, price, warranty, brand name reputation, components, and so on. PURCHASE: You buy the hi-def television after judging alternatives. POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR: You are satisfied with your purchase, which was the result of extensive decision making. Alternatively, you are dissatisfied with your purchase, return the television, and begin the process again. PTS: 1 REF: 146-152 OBJ: 05-2 | 05-3 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 3. Assume you have decided to purchase a new flat-screen television with surround sound. Describe your internal information search. Then name the two types of external information sources. For each source, give two specific examples of information sources you might use. ANS: An internal information search is the process of recalling past information stored in memory. This stored information would come from previous experience with television sets. By searching your memory, you could remember good and bad features–such as weight, sound quality, picture quality, etc.–you have seen on other sets. MARKETING-CONTROLLED information sources could include mass-media advertising about flatscreen televisions (radio, television, newspaper, or direct-mail); sales promotion (contests, sweepstakes, displays, premiums, etc.); salespeople at electronics stores; and finally, product labels and warranties for televisions. NONMARKETING-CONTROLLED information sources could include personal experience (trying out or observing television sets); personal sources (family, friends, acquaintances, and coworkers); and public sources (Underwriters Laboratories, Consumer Reports, or other consumer-rating organizations). PTS: 1 REF: 148-149 OBJ: 05-2 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Product 4. Assume you have decided to purchase a mobile telephone. List and briefly describe three factors that may affect the extent of your information search. ANS: Students will determine numerous factors that will affect the extent of an information search. Some possible examples follow: PERCEIVED RISK. Because the decision to purchase a mobile phone may be relatively risky due to high cost, the consumer may spend more time searching for alternatives or gathering information. Social risks may also cause the consumer to be more careful in the search because the mobile telephone is an example of “conspicuous consumption” and is socially visible. Also, it takes effort and time to gather information. At a certain point, the consumer may decide the value of additional information about mobile phones is not worth the effort to obtain the information. KNOWLEDGE. If the consumer knows little about the product, a more extensive information search would be necessary to give the consumer enough knowledge to feel confident about making a decision. People lacking confidence about information will continue an information search even if they are extremely knowledgeable. PRIOR EXPERIENCE WITH THE PRODUCT. If the consumer has already had experience with a certain brand of mobile telephone, the information search will be limited because brand preferences may have already been established, and the perceived risk will be lower. INTEREST. How important is the mobile telephone in solving a problem or satisfying needs and wants? If the mobile phone is simply “neat to have” and the consumer has other phones, the information search might not be as extensive as the one for a consumer who finds a mobile phone vital to his or her job. More interested consumers spend more time searching for information and alternatives. INVOLVEMENT LEVEL. A mobile telephone may be a high-involvement product for a student and a low-involvement product for an executive. The higher the level of involvement, the more extensive the information search is likely to be. Other items students might mention include confidence in one’s decision-making abilities, prior experience with the product class, and influence of reference groups and other motivations. PTS: 1 REF: 149-150 | 152-153 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Product 5. How can marketers and consumers reduce cognitive dissonance? OBJ: 05-2 | 05-4 ANS: Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by both consumers and marketers. Consumers can take steps to reduce dissonance by obtaining new information that reinforces their positive ideas about the product and by avoiding information that contradicts the purchase decision. Finally, consumers can choose to return the product. Marketers can help consumers reduce dissonance by communicating with them. Postpurchase letters, dissonance-reducing statements in instructions, and advertising that displays superiority over competing brands can all relieve dissonance. PTS: 1 REF: 151-152 OBJ: 05-3 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product 6. Assume you and some of your fellow students have decided to dine at a five-star restaurant upon successfully completing this marketing class. What type of consumer decision making will take place? Why did you choose this type? ANS: Acquiring information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category is called limited decision making. In this case, limited decision making will take place for the following reasons: The student will seek information about alternative restaurants. The student may rely on the advice of other students to help decide on the restaurants, which may take more time. An extensive amount of effort in terms of information seeking is not reasonably possible. The costs and risks involved are moderate. PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 7. Assume you have gone to the corner convenience store to pick up a bar of your usual brand of deodorant soap. What type of decision making will take place? How would this differ from the decision making that would take place if the store was out of your regular brand? ANS: With a low-involvement product such as bars of soap, routine response behavior would take place, because the product is low priced and the same brand is frequently purchased. The purchase would be habitual. If the store was out of the regular brand, limited decision making would take place. Acquiring information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category (such as soap) is called limited decision making. Some effort would have to be expended on evaluating alternatives or comparing prices if the consumer was price-sensitive. PTS: 1 REF: 151-153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Product 8. What is extensive decision making? When would a person use extensive decision making? Name two products that would require extensive decision making when purchased for the first time and would require limited decision making in subsequent purchases. ANS: A consumer practices extensive decision making when purchasing an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item. This process is the most complex type of decision making because the buyer uses many criteria for evaluating alternative brands and spends much time seeking information. Buying a car, an appliance, a stereo system, or other expensive, durable item would require extensive decision making for the first purchase. However, as the purchase is repeated, the buyer may feel experienced in decision making and may step back to limited decision making. For example, a person who has bought several cars may resort to the heuristic, “I have always bought Fords and have been satisfied, so my next car will be a Ford.” PTS: 1 REF: 153 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 9. Assume you have been invited to join a social club whose members typically wear leather bombardier jackets. You have never bought or worn a leather jacket before. List and briefly describe four factors that could influence your level of involvement in the purchase of the leather jacket. How involved will you be in this purchase and why? ANS: The factors that affect involvement level are previous experience, interest, perceived risk of negative consequences, situation, and social visibility. PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE. Because there is no previous experience with the product, level of involvement will be higher because of unfamiliarity with the product. INTEREST. Areas of interest vary by individual. The student may or may not be interested in leather jackets. However, purchasing the leather jacket indicates an interest in the social group and probably a high level of involvement. PERCEIVED RISK OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES. Several types of risks are involved in the purchase. With an expensive jacket, loss of purchasing power and opportunity costs result in financial risk. A social risk is taken, because wearing a leather jacket may cause a positive or negative reaction from other peer groups. For example, animal rights activists might criticize the purchase of a leather jacket, or other peer groups might view the purchase as frivolous. Finally, there is a psychological risk involved in the form of anxiety or concern about whether the “right” jacket has been purchased and is acceptable to other members of the social club. SITUATION. The circumstances of the social club make the leather jacket a high-involvement purchase. SOCIAL VISIBILITY. Because a leather jacket is a social and public display, wearing the jacket makes a statement about the individual. This would also make the purchase a high-involvement one. PTS: 1 REF: 153-154 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product 10. Most consumer decision making is in a low-involvement setting; therefore, a consumer is often not seeking many of the products marketers are trying to sell. What tactics can a marketer use to increase sales of a low-involvement product? Explain the logic of your reasoning. ANS: Because problem recognition for low-involvement purchases rarely occurs until the consumer is in the store, the marketer must use attention-getting devices in the store. These include attractive packaging and in-store displays. Marketers can also provide incentives in the form of sales promotions, including coupons, cents-off deals, rebates, and two-for-one offers. Finally, marketers can link a product to a higher-involvement issue. For example, toothpaste can be promoted as a product that fights plaque and cavities. Breakfast cereal can be promoted as a health food that reduces the risk of cancer. PTS: 1 REF: 154-155 OBJ: 05-4 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Strategy 11. What is the difference between culture and subculture? Why do marketing managers need to understand culture and subculture? ANS: CULTURE is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the products of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is environmentally oriented and dynamic. It also gives order to society by establishing common expectations. SUBCULTURES are subdivisions of culture on the basis of such things as demographic characteristics, geographic regions, political beliefs, religious beliefs, and national and ethnic backgrounds. Subcultures are homogeneous groups that share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements. Within subcultures there are even greater similarities in people’s attitudes, values, and actions than within the broader culture. Without understanding culture, a firm has little chance of effectively penetrating the market. As more companies expand their operations globally, the need to understand the cultures of foreign countries becomes more important. Marketers should become familiar with the culture and adapt to it, or marketers can attempt to bring their own culture to other countries. Marketers should also identify subcultures and then design special marketing programs to serve their needs. PTS: 1 REF: 156-157 | 159-160 OBJ: 05-5 TOP: AACSB Analytic | AACSB Diversity | TB&E Model Customer 12. List and briefly describe all categories of informal and formal reference groups that affect your consumer purchase decision-making process. In doing so, demonstrate a sense of HOW these groups influence the process. ANS: Reference groups can be divided into two categories: DIRECT and INDIRECT. Direct reference groups involve face-to-face membership groups that directly touch the life of the person. Indirect groups are nonmembership groups. Direct groups have two subcategories: PRIMARY and SECONDARY reference groups. Primary membership groups include all groups with which the student would interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, and fellow students or employees. Interaction with secondary membership groups is less consistent and more formal. These might include clubs, fraternities/sororities, religious groups, or professional groups. Indirect groups have two subcategories: ASPIRATIONAL and NONASPIRATIONAL. Aspirational groups are those of which the student is currently not a member but would like to be. These might include fraternities, sororities, campus groups, or other clubs that the student wishes to join. Nonaspirational groups are those from which the student wishes to maintain a distance. These might include competing fraternities or sororities, failing students, or unsuccessful workers. PTS: 1 REF: 163-165 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 13. List and briefly describe the five different roles various family members can play to influence the purchase decision-making process for a new houseboat. ANS: THE INITIATOR would be the person who initiates or suggests the purchase process. THE INFLUENCER would be a person whose opinion is valued in the decision-making process. THE DECISION MAKER is the person or persons who actually make the decision to buy. THE PURCHASER is the individual who actually exchanges money for the product. THE CONSUMER is the user of the houseboat either as a passenger or as captain. PTS: 1 REF: 166-167 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 14. The activities, values, and goals of reference groups directly influence consumer behavior. What are reference groups? What are the three important implications reference groups have for marketers? ANS: Reference groups are groups in society that influence an individual’s purchasing behavior. Those implications are: (1) they serve as information sources and influence perceptions, (2) they affect an individual’s aspiration levels, and (3) their norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior. PTS: 1 REF: 163-167 OBJ: 05-6 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 15. Define self-concept. Choose a product (i.e., a good, service, or idea), and use that product to illustrate how a marketer would apply the idea of self-concept to market the product. ANS: Self-concept is how an individual perceives himself or herself in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations. Through self-concepts, consumers define their identity, which in turn provides for consistent behavior. Self-concept is a combination of the ideal self-image and the real self-image. For any product chosen, the marketer would promote the product as a match to real self-image or a support for attaining the ideal self-image. The concept of self is important to marketers because it helps explain the relationship between individuals’ perceptions of themselves and their consumer behavior as expressed through their personalities. For examples, marketers of deodorant develop promotional ads linking use of the product with success and popularity. PTS: 1 REF: 169-170 OBJ: 05-7 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product 16. Name and briefly define the three types of selective perception. Use an example to illustrate your work. ANS: SELECTIVE EXPOSURE occurs when consumers decide to notice some messages and ignore others. The consumer is exposed only to those messages he or she wishes to process. Usually, the chosen messages are ones that are consistent with the consumer’s attitudes and/or beliefs. SELECTIVE DISTORTION occurs when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. The information may be interpreted incorrectly by the consumer. SELECTIVE RETENTION is the process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports personal feelings or beliefs. PTS: 1 REF: 171-172 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer 17. Assume a consumer is inspecting the package of a new cereal. The label on the box is packed with fact-filled nutrition information. Give specific examples of what might occur during the selective perception process, including selective exposure, distortion, and retention. ANS: SELECTIVE EXPOSURE occurs when consumers decide to notice some messages and ignore others. The consumer will be exposed to some of the messages on the cereal box. For example, the consumer might read parts of the nutrition information but ignore the muffin recipes. SELECTIVE DISTORTION occurs when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs. The information may be interpreted incorrectly by the consumer. For example, the consumer may look at the chart of U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances and note that the cereal is very nutritious. He or she may also read the ingredients but miss the fact that the primary ingredient is sugar. SELECTIVE RETENTION is the process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports personal feelings or beliefs. When shopping for more cereal a week later, the consumer may have forgotten the price of the cereal and some of the relevant nutrition information. However, the consumer may specifically remember that the cereal is high in fiber. PTS: 1 REF: 171-172 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product 18. Define each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. For each of the five levels, briefly describe a marketing message appealing to this need level. ANS: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS are the most basic level of human needs. These needs include food, water, and shelter. Text examples include thirst-quenching Gatorade or satisfying hunger by eating a hamburger. SAFETY NEEDS include security and freedom from pain and discomfort. Examples include safety features in cars such as air bags, antilock brakes, and reinforced construction as well as home security systems. SOCIAL NEEDS involve a sense of belonging and love. Examples could include any messages advertising that the use of the product will bring love. These products might include cosmetics, clothes, jewelry, vacation packages, and perfume. ESTEEM NEEDS include self-respect, feelings of accomplishment, prestige, fame, and recognition. Examples include messages about Brooks Brothers clothiers, BMW and Lexus cars, and NeimanMarcus stores. SELF-ACTUALIZATION is the highest human need. It refers to self-fulfillment and self-expression. Examples are the message from the U.S. Army to “be all that you can be” and American Express advertisements. PTS: 1 REF: 173-174 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Analytic | TB&E Model Customer 19. How do marketers differentiate between beliefs and attitudes? ANS: Both beliefs and attitudes are closely linked to values. A belief is defined as an organized pattern of knowledge that individuals hold to be true about their world. Consumers form beliefs about products based on knowledge, faith, or hearsay. Sets of beliefs form the basis for an attitude. An attitude is a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object. Attitudes tend to be more enduring and complex than beliefs. Attitudes also encompass an individual’s value system, which represents personal standards of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth. PTS: 1 REF: 176 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer 20. Apply the three methods of changing attitudes or beliefs about brands to possibilities for the marketing activities of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes (or another breakfast cereal you are more familiar with). ANS: CHANGING BELIEFS ABOUT ATTRIBUTES. Kellogg’s could work to promote the image of a family cereal by changing consumers’ beliefs about children’s cereals. Any negative beliefs or misconceptions should also be changed. For example, consumers may believe the cereal is high in sugar, when actually it is not. CHANGING THE IMPORTANCE OF BELIEFS. Kellogg’s could start emphasizing certain attributes that already exist. These might include environmental concerns (a package made of 100 percent recycled materials), or consumer preferences (the favorite choice of all consumers). ADDING NEW BELIEFS. Kellogg’s could try to expand the consumption habits of consumers by stating, “Corn flakes are not just for breakfast anymore.” Kellogg’s could also emphasize additional attributes to the ones already in use, such as more nutrients (100 percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance), cancer prevention (high fiber), or patriotism (the American family and a red, white, and blue package). PTS: 1 REF: 177-178 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Analytic | AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer | TB&E Model Product 21. Define stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination and give an example of how each is used. ANS: Stimulus generalization occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first. Any product line extension will be a satisfactory example. Stimulus discrimination occurs when consumers learn to differentiate among similar products. There are many examples of stimulus discrimination. Students’ examples should indicate how superficial differences are emphasized in promotions. PTS: 1 REF: 175-176 OBJ: 05-8 TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer

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