Diagnostic criteria for Sleep/Wake Disorder.
Respond to your colleagues by comparing the differential diagnostic features of the disorder you were assigned to the diagnostic features of the disorder your colleagues were assigned.
NOTE: Positive comment
(bellow is attached the sleep disorder assigned to me)
Diagnostic criteria for Sleep/Wake Disorder. (Nightmare Disorder)
Nightmare disorders occur when the persons experiences nightmares regular or severe nightmares. The nightmare disorder is categorized under parasomnia of sleep disorders. It is characterized by abnormal experiences and events that occur when a person falls asleep, sleeping, or waking up. These individuals usually have frequent dreams that induce fear, anxiety and other negative feelings. causes fear and hinders normal daytime functioning. In the diagnostic criteria for the nightmare disorder, various factors are considered in order to diagnose the disorder. Some of these factors include if an individual has repeatedly distressful dreams that generally consist of their wellbeing and safety which they try to avoid and they generally occur during the second half of the major sleep cycle (Dietch, et al., 2020). If a person upon waking up from the nightmare becomes alert and oriented rather quickly, and if the nightmare results in great distress and impairment in vital areas of life such as occupations and social life, they can be used to diagnose the disorder. Another criterion for the diagnosis is if another condition does not effectively explain the main complaint of distressful dreams and if the nightmares are not due to physiological effects of a particular substance like medication or an abusive drug. There are no known tests that can diagnose this disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2017). However, a patient suffering from nightmare disorder is properly examined by a doctor by establishing any medical history and analyzing symptoms. The diagnosis may include a physical exam that aims at identifying possible conditions that may influence the nightmares. If the nightmares are recurrent and indicate anxiety, the patient may be referred to a mental health professional. The diagnosis can also involve symptoms discussion. The doctor can inquire about sleeping behaviors and family history of sleeping disorder. The doctor can also discuss other possible causes of the sleeping disorder. The doctor can also recommend for a Polysomnography where an overnight sleep study is undertaken to determine if the nightmares result from other sleep disorders. Sensors are attached to the body to record heart rate, brain waves, the oxygen level in the blood, movements of the eyes and legs, and breathing rates (Mayo Clinic, 2017).
Evidence-Based Psychotherapy and Psychopharmacologic Treatment for your assigned sleep/wake disorder. (Nightmare Disorder)
The underlying cause of this disorder helps in determining the type of treatment intervention. The evidence-based psychotherapy treatment for the nightmare disorder that has been carried out and found to be effective include rescripting therapy is used when nightmares are caused PTSD (Standard of Practice Committee, 2010). The most substantial evidence that was obtained was in image rehearsal therapy because the treatment addressed the disorder with a secondary benefit being the possibility of relieving the distress linked with nightmares. Rescripting, relaxation, and exposure therapy treatments aim to reduce anxiety related to nightmares; it uses progressive muscle relaxation, sleep hygiene, and psycho education techniques. The evidence-based psychopharmacologic treatment used to treat the nightmare disorder includes Trazodone, Prazosin, Gabapentin, Fluvoxamine, Clonidine, Risperidone and Olanzapine. Much evidence has been obtained about Prazosin, and it is commonly used to treat Anxiety and High Blood Pressure (Yucel, et al., 2020). Clonidine is used for the treatment of Insomnia, High Blood Pressure, and stress while Gabapentin treats Seizures and Neuropathic pain. With Tricyclic and Trazodone antidepressants, they are used to treat Depression and Insomnia.
Primary Care Physician for an additional referral (Nightmare Disorder)
Occasional nightmares may not always be a cause of concern. If a child experiences nightmare, it is essential to mention this during routine well-child exams and programs. However, it is important to consult the doctor if the nightmares occur frequently and persist for a long period. The doctor can also be consulted if they routinely disrupt sleep patterns and a patient gradually wakes up into the night. If the nightmares cause great fear before sleeping and if they impact individual behavior and daytime functioning, it is crucial to consult a doctor (Stefani, 2020).The nightmares are persistent can lead to mental health problems such as Anxiety and Depression as the dreams continue to bother the individual. A person may also resist going to bed or sleeping due to fear of having bad dreams. This, in turn, causes them to have excessive daytime sleepiness that impacts their productivity and efficiency both at school and at work. It also affects daily tasks that involve concentration and commitment. Nightmare disorder has also resulted in adverse impacts such as suicidal thoughts and attempts if the problem is not identified and treated early.Additionally, if the patient may be having comorbid medical conditions, they will have to be referred to the appropriate specialist.
Dietch, J. R., Taylor, D. J., Pruiksma, K., Wardle-Pinkston, S., Slavish, D. C., Messman, B., … & Kelly, K. (2020). The Nightmare Disorder Index: development and initial validation in a sample of nurses. Sleep.
Mayo Clinic (July 6, 2017). Nightmare disorder- Diagnosis and Treatment. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/nightmare-disorder/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353520
Standards of Practice Committee, Aurora, R. N., Zak, R. S., Auerbach, S. H., Casey, K. R., Chowdhuri, S., … & Morgenthaler, T. I. (2010). Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. Journal of clinical sleep medicine, 6(4), 389-401.
Yücel, D. E., van Emmerik, A. A., Souama, C., & Lancee, J. (2020). Comparative efficacy of imagery rehearsal therapy and prazosin in the treatment of trauma-related nightmares in adults: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sleep medicine reviews, 50, 101248.
Stefani, A., & Högl, B. (2020). Nightmare Disorder and Isolated Sleep Paralysis. Neurotherapeutics, 1-7.