1. Fill in the blank.
    1-The first step in the flow of energy through most of the living world is: ____________
    2-Light is composed of small particles, or packets, of energy called: _______________
    3- Is the main pigment of photosynthesis: ____________________________________
    Multiple choice
    4-Plants get the energy they need for photosynthesis by absorbing:
    a. high-energy sugars.
    b. chlorophyll a.
    c, chlorophyll b.
    d. sunlight.
    5-Where in the chloroplast is chlorophyll found?
    a. in the ATP
    b. in the stroma
    c. in the thylakoid membrane
    d. in the thylakoid space
    6-Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into
    a. oxygen and carbon.
    b. high-energy sugars and proteins.
    c. ATP and oxygen.
    d. oxygen and sugars
    7- The organelle that contains chlorophyll
    a. chloroplast
    b. vacuole
    c. cell wall
    8-The green pigment of plants that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis is:
    a. cell wall
    b. chlorophyll
    c. cytoplasm
    9– The chemical equation for photosynthesis
    a. 6CO2 + 6O2 —>using sunlight —> C6H12O6 + 6H2O
    b.6CO2 + C6H12O6 —>using sunlight —> 6H2O + 6O2
    c. 6CO2 + 6H2O —>using sunlight —> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    d. 6O2 + 6H2O —>using sunlight —> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
    10– Holes in plant leaves that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to leave.
    a. chloroplast
    b. stomata
    c. chlorophyll
    d. roots
    11-The part of the plant that absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
    a. chloroplast
    b. roots
    c. chlorophyll
    d. stomata
    12. The process of the cell cycle in which a cell divides into two daughter cells is
    a. cytokinesis. b. metaphase.             c. interphase.               d. mitosis.13-Which event occurs during interphase?
    a. The cell carries out metabolic growth processes.
    b. Centrioles appear.
    c. Spindle fibers begin to form.
    d. Centromeres divide.
    14-During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of
    the dividing cell?
    a. prophase
    b. telophase
    c. metaphase
    d. anaphase
    15-Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of:
    a. diploid cells.
    b. haploid cells.
    c. 2n daughter cells.
    d. body cells.
    16-Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?
    a. cytokinesis
    b. interphase
    c. prophase
    d. S phase
    17- Meiosis is a type of cell division that will produce
    a. Packets of pollen to be transferred between the abdomen of insects
    b. Exact copies of the parent cell
    c. The male and female sex cells
    d. 2 new somatic cells
    18- How many chromosomes are found in human body cells?
    a. 26
    c. 46
    d. 23
    19- How many chromosomes are found in human sex cells?
    a. 46
    b. 35
    c. 72
    d. 23
    20– The sequence in a chromosome that contains the information to make an RNA or protein product with a specific function is
    a. DNA
    b. DND
    c. ARNm
    d. DNAm
    21. The site a gene occupies in the chromosome is:
    a. Alleles
    b. Locus
    c. gametes
    d. Homozygous
    22– The sex of humans and other mammals is determined by the sex chromosomes -X,Y chromosomes X,Y chromosomes. How many ‘X’ chromosomes a normal female mammal has?
    a. two X
    b. three X
    c. four X
    d. five X
    23- The sex of humans and other mammals is determined by the sex chromosomes – X, Y chromosomes. How many ‘Y ‘chromosomes a normal male mammal has?
    a. one Y
    b. three Y
    c. four Y
    d. five Y


    24-Genetics is the science of heredity_____________
    25-Phenotype is the physical appearance of an organism ______________
    26-Genes are units of heredity that affect an organism’s traits ___________
    27-Homozygous are four identical alleles _______________
    28- Dosage compensation is a mechanism that allows males and females to produce the same amounts of proteins coded by X-linked genes _____________
    29-Codominance: the heterozygote simultaneously expresses phenotypes of both homozygotes ____________
    30-Gregor Mendel in 21th, began the scientific study of inheritance through his breeding of pea plants _______________

    Multiple choice         

    31-Which type of molecule contains genetic information that is passed from parents to offspring?
    a. Fat molecules
    b. DNA molecules
    c. Protein molecules
    d. Carbohydrate molecules
    32-DNA molecules are made up of subunits called nucleotides that are linked together. How many different types of nucleotides are used to make DNA molecules?
    a.One type
    b.Two types
    c.Three types
    d.Four types
    33-What are the subunits that make up DNA molecules?
    a. Amino acids
    b. Nucleotides
    c. Fatty acids
    d. Proteins
    34. In 1952 Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase worked with bacteriophages . Bacteriophages are:
    a. Virus
    b. Bacteria
    c. Fungi
    d. protozoa
    35-Who applied the information and began to build scale models of DNA components?
    a. Watson and Crick
    b.Rosalind Franklin
    c. Erwin Chargaff
    d. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    36- Who used X-ray diffraction to determine 3-D structure and measurements of the DNA molecule?
    a. Watson and Crick
    b. Rosalind Franklin
    c. Erwin Chargaff
    d. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    37- Enzymes able to open the double helix like a zipper, forming a replication fork is known:
    a. DNA polimerase
    b. DNA primase
    c. DNA ligase
    d. helicase
    38- A special DNA replication enzyme, can lengthen telomeric DNA by adding repetitive nucleotide sequences to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes is:
    a. DNA polymerase
    b. helicase
    c. Telomerase
    d.None of the above
    39-Okazaki fragments have:
    a. 100- to 2000-nucleotide fragments
    b. 200- to 3000-nucleotide fragments
    c. 300- to 5000- nucleotide fragments
    d.400-to 6000-nucleotide fragments
    40. Enzymes proofread and repair errors in DNA when an error in base pairing is found. Which enzyme immediately removes the incorrect nucleotide and inserts the correct one:
    a. DNA primase
    b. DNA ligase
    c. helicase
    d. DNA polymerase

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