The Final Exam is a Short Response Exam. Respond to the five items below.

Rubric: Your written work must demonstrate written expression in a logical and comprehensive manner with details that remain focused on the relevance to the question/items. Additionally, each response must include text and/or discussion support

1. It is important to point out that many adults with ADHD have highly successful careers and jobs, and many have happy marriages and families. For example, Brittany Sanders (see the accompanying Peer Connections) appears to have coped very well with her ADHD and to be well on her way to a happy adult life. There’s little doubt that ADHD can be a lifelong struggle. However, with the appropriate combination of medical, educational, and psychological counseling, satisfactory employment and family adjustment are within the reach of most people with ADHD. Now that most authorities recognize that ADHD often continues into adulthood, more and more research will be focused on treatment of ADHD in adults. With this research should come an even more positive outlook for adults with ADHD. How does this knowledge relate to the historical origins of ADHD; the causes of ADHD; educational considerations for learners with ADHD; and transition to adulthood for learners with ADHD?

2. Most children and youths with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) aren’t very good at making friends. Some students with EBD are withdrawn. Many of the students with EBD are isolated from others because they strike out with hostility and aggression. They’re abusive, destructive, unpredictable, irresponsible, bossy, quarrelsome, irritable, jealous, defiant—anything but pleasant. Naturally, most other children and most adults choose not to spend time with individuals like this unless they have to. Some people strike back at youngsters who show these characteristics. It’s no wonder that children and youths with EBD seem to be embroiled in a continuous battle with everyone. The reaction of most other children and adults is to withdraw to avoid battles, but students who are socially rejected then don’t learn to behave acceptably. To this end, how should teachers and well-behaved peers who might naturally tend to withdraw from them or avoid them, reverse their behaviors to embrace the EBD students and include them in the classroom, thus elevating their academic relationships?

3.  The seminal work in the field of autism began with two scientific papers published a year apart (1943 and 1944) by physicians working independently: Leo Kanner (1943/1973) and Hans Asperger (1944/1991). Interestingly, both were born and raised in Vienna; however, Kanner came to the United States and wrote his historic paper in English. Asperger’s work went largely ignored for many years, probably because it was published in German at the time of World War II. Also, interestingly, both Kanner and Asperger used the term autistic to refer to the children they were observing. Autism was a label that had been coined earlier in the 20th century (Bleuler, 1916/1951) and was used to refer to individuals who had an extremely narrow range of personal relationships and restricted interactions with their environment: “a withdrawal from the fabric of social life into the self. Hence the words ‘autistic’ and ‘autism’ from the Greek word autos meaning ‘self’”. List, define and elaborate on six of the eight major characteristics in the text that distinguishes these children from others. A major conclusion that Kanner reached was that these children could be distinguished from children who had schizophrenia in at least three ways. List, define and elaborate on the three ways reviewed in the text.

4. Define and elaborate on the meanings of the following as it relates to the exceptional student professional educators:

· How are communication disorders defined and what is the prevalence of them?

· What are some basic anatomical and physiological characteristics of the ear?

· How is the progress of students with hearing impairment assessed?

· What is the prevalence of visual impairment?

· What are some important considerations with respect of early intervention for learners with visual impairments?

· How is giftedness defined and identified?

· What groups of students with special gifts and talents are neglected?

5. Define and elaborate on the meanings of the following as it relates to the exceptional student professional educators:

· How are physical disabilities defined and classified?

· What are some major neuromotor impairments?

· What are some major orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders?

· What other conditions affect health or physical ability?

· What are the psychological and behavioral characteristics of individuals with physical disabilities?

· What are prosthetics, orthotics, and adaptive devices?

· What are the major educational considerations for students with physical disabilities?

· Why is early intervention important, and on what should it focus?

· What are the major issues in transition for students with physical disabilities?

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