Question 1 (2 points)


Before contract negotiations begin, the national union may call a __________ at which local delegates hear the national’s plans for bargaining and propose their own issues.

Question 1 options:

revision meeting
membership meeting
bargaining convention

Question 2 (2 points)


Which of the following observations is true concerning negotiation?

Question 2 options:

Negotiations are not characterized by written demands and concessions.
Negotiations are more often seen as an unproductive exercise.
Concessions made during negotiations are rarely voluntary.
Negotiation occurs if both parties believe they will benefit by agreeing.

Question 3 (2 points)


What do the four major types of strikes have in common?

Question 3 options:

Unauthorized stoppage during the contract
Labor law violations
Employees’ refusal to work
Employers’ refusal to budge

Question 4 (2 points)


__________ is the communication by two parties of the terms they require to consummate a transaction and the subsequent acceptance or rejection of the terms by both.

Question 4 options:


Question 5 (2 points)


Why is bargaining required?

Question 5 options:

Because it has historically been a strict legal requirement
Because both the parties are facing a win-win situation
Because there are no trade-offs involved in the process
Because the parties have a conflict of interest on issues that jointly affect them

Question 6 (2 points)


Which of the following observations is true concerning distributive bargaining?

Question 6 options:

It frequently involves employers’ desires to improve flexibility and unions’ desires for increased job security.
It means some resource is in fixed supply, and one party’s gain of that resource is the other party’s loss.
It occurs when employers and unions accommodate each other’s needs through simultaneous gains.
It occurs when employers and unions accommodate each other’s needs without cost.

Question 7 (2 points)


Which of the following is used when employers and unions face a common problem?

Question 7 options:

Attitudinal structuring
Zero-sum bargaining
Integrative bargaining
Distributive bargaining

Question 8 (2 points)


Which type of strike involves unauthorized work stoppage during the contract?

Question 8 options:

Unfair labor practice

Question 9 (2 points)


A(n) __________ employer is one affected by the picketing activity of the primary’s employees.

Question 9 options:


Question 10 (2 points)


In a __________, the union exerts pressure where the employer might be vulnerable to support a collective bargaining objective.

Question 10 options:

sympathy strike
corporate camp

Question 11 (2 points)


Which strike occurs when one union strikes to support another union’s strike?

Question 11 options:


Question 12 (2 points)


Which of the following is true of the incidence of strikes?

Question 12 options:

Strikes are more frequent when the parties’ relative risks have substantially changed since earlier negotiations.
Employer and union stability and stability in the employer’s supplier market are associated with higher strike incidence rates.
Lower proportions of unionized employees in an industry are related to higher strike and wage levels.
Strikes decrease as unemployment falls and inflation rises.

Question 13 (2 points)


__________ strikes protest employer labor law violations.

Question 13 options:

Unfair labor practice

Question 14 (2 points)


Which of the following issues is least salient for successful organizing?

Question 14 options:


Question 15 (2 points)


Large nonunion firms generally have formalized __________, with clearly communicated and unambiguous promotion criteria emphasizing seniority, skills, as well as development opportunities.

Question 15 options:

pay-increase scales
career-growth patterns
job-posting systems
grievance-addressing systems

Question 16 (2 points)


Propensities to strike were seen to be positively related to __________.

Question 16 options:

pay rate
strike hardship

Question 17 (2 points)


In unionized organizations, union representation and the negotiated contract take the place of many __________ devised by nonunion employers.

Question 17 options:

grievance committees
legal notifications
employee-oriented financial plans
human resource programs

Question 18 (2 points)


If unionization leads to lower shareholder returns, other things being equal, top managers could be expected to try to __________ in their firms, particularly if a substantial proportion of their compensation is in the form of stock options.

Question 18 options:

decrease high absenteeism
increase worker motivation
introduce stock split option
reduce unionization

Question 19 (2 points)


Nonunion organizations may implement __________, using performance measures to differentiate pay increases.

Question 19 options:

work-life balance initiatives
wage cuts
stock options
merit pay policies

Question 20 (2 points)


Newly incorporated, __________ industries have had a relatively low level of unionization, even when they have been located in traditionally highly unionized areas.

Question 20 options:



Question 21 (2 points)


In the context of union political processes and the diffusion of change, unions are likely to adopt which of the following reactions to innovative workplace initiatives?

Question 21 options:

Reject political protection as partisan
Let the union lead and see what results
Cooperate or collaborate
“Say yes”

Question 22 (2 points)


EI programs are associated with the reduction of which of the following?

Question 22 options:

Job satisfaction

Question 23 (2 points)


The organizational restructuring that began in the 1980s has been increasingly __________.

Question 23 options:


Question 24 (2 points)


According to a study, __________ programs produced better results than programs run only by management, which were not better than having no program.

Question 24 options:


Question 25 (2 points)


Which of the following is associated with reduced productivity gains?

Question 25 options:

Larger proportion of women in the workforce
Technology changes
Top union leader participation

Question 26 (2 points)


__________ expand the governance of the organization beyond what is included in union-management cooperation.

Question 26 options:

Labor-management partnerships
Areawide labor-management committees
Employee involvement programs
Joint labor-management committees

Question 27 (2 points)


Which of the following is true about companies that implemented high-performance work organizations (HPWOs) during the early 1990s?

Question 27 options:

There was no net compensation gain for employees.
There was an overall increase in pay.
HPWO practices increased job security.
HPWO practices lowered layoff rates.

Question 28 (2 points)


Hours grievances involve __________.

Question 28 options:

job transfers
work schedules

Question 29 (2 points)


Which of the following is true about last chance agreements?

Question 29 options:

They save union resources on having to defend members who chronically violate rules.
They do not allow any scope for negotiation.
They do not permit being unilaterally imposed by the employer.
They are always excluded in an arbitrator’s decision at the final step.

Question 30 (2 points)


When a grievance is unresolved even after presenting it to the industrial representative, the parties submit the dispute to a(n) __________ who hears evidence from both sides and renders an award.

Question 30 options:

union steward
international union representative



Question 31 (2 points)



If grievance settlements are denied initially, the steward presents the grievance to a (n) __________.

Question 31 options:

international union representative
plant industrial relations representative

Question 32 (2 points)


Which of the following is true about the American Arbitration Association (AAA)?

Question 32 options:

It employs arbitrators.
It acts as a clearinghouse to administer matters between the parties and the arbitrators.
It does not cater to requests for the provision of hearing facilities and court reporters.
It does not follow up to see what decisions were rendered.

Question 33 (2 points)


__________ is a form of subcontracting.

Question 33 options:

Work assignment
Fractional bargaining

Question 34 (2 points)



Which of the following leads to higher-level settlements of grievances?

Question 34 options:

High costs
High steward knowledge of the contract
Rigid procedural rules
Smaller bargaining units

Question 35 (2 points)



Since the early 1970s, some large companies and unions have used __________ arbitration to reduce time delays and costs.

Question 35 options:


Question 36 (2 points)


Rules of evidence in arbitration are more __________ than those in courts of law.

Question 36 options:


Question 37 (2 points)



Which of the following is used more often for absenteeism and incompetence?

Question 37 options:

Humanitarian discipline
Corrective discipline
Authoritarian approach
Dogmatic approach

Question 38 (2 points)



In discipline and discharge cases, requested relief is usually for the __________.

Question 38 options:

dissolution of previous work records
employment of a family member
restoration of employment
reinstatement of a transfer

Question 39 (2 points)


Which form of evidence is information specifically tying a person to a situation?

Question 39 options:

Direct evidence
Subjective evidence
Circumstantial evidence
External evidence

Question 40 (2 points)



Which of the following facilitates the entry of new arbitrators because relatively simple and straightforward cases are generally handled in this way?

Question 40 options:

Expert determination
Formal arbitration
Expedited arbitration



Question 41 (5 points)



Explain how shareholder value decreases following unionization

Question 42 (5 points)


How is bluffing valuable in negotiations?

Question 43 (5 points)


Supreme Court decisions on fair representation yield six principles. What are they?

Question 44 (5 points)


How are human resource expenditures higher for nonunionized employers?


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