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Contributors to the development of intercultural competence in nursing students☆

Esther Zazzi⁎


Keywords: Intercultural Diversity Culture Competence Development Nursing


Nurses deal more effectively with cultural diversity when they have an ethnorelative orientation toward cultural difference and commonality on the Intercultural Development Continuum, which was the theoretical framework of this study. Scholarly literature shows limited knowledge on what fosters nurses’ intercultural development. Thus, this quantitative, retrospective study was the first investigation in health care in Switzerland conducted on nursing students’ orientation on the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI). The sample consisted of the IDI results from nursing students enrolled between 2010 and 2016 at the largest Nursing College in Switzerland (N = 1.112 students in 40 cohorts) where the systematic integration of the development of intercultural competence into the curriculum began in 2010. The aim was to examine to what extent the orientation toward cultural difference and commonality on the Intercultural Development Continuum of nursing students in Switzerland differs from the start- to the end-point of their nursing education. The paired samples t-test de- monstrated a higher end of program developmental orientation (p = .01) compared to beginning developmental orientation scores, suggesting the program provided challenges that met the students’ level of readiness for cultural development. Educators can use the knowledge provided in this study and implement intercultural competence as a central element within the curriculum following the example of the Nursing College included in this study.

1. Introduction

Diversity is inherent in the Swiss health care as the population de- mographics change. Several factors contributing to Swiss diversification include an increase in foreign-born permanent residents, an increase in a variety of religious beliefs among the population, and, an aging Swiss population (Swiss Swiss Confederation, 2018a). Diversity is inherent in the Swiss health care system not only in patients but also health care providers (Obsan, 2016). For example, Swedish and Slovenian health care professionals have exhibited a difference in teamwork, relation- ships between professions, and responses to patient problems (Pahor and Rasmussen, 2009). Cowan and Norman (2006) reported that mi- grant nurses from other European Union countries employed in London hospitals were perplexed by the diversity of cultures in the United Kingdom. Nurses are required to care for a diverse population in the health care setting where diversity is inherent also in health care pro- viders.

Diversity may lead to marginalization and discrimination, which may be accentuated in individuals who perceive they are different from the majority, not only because of ethnicity and language but also factors like age, gender, or disability. According to the Swiss Red Cross (2018), unreflective generalizations and prejudices by health professionals about individuals or whole groups of people prevent the view of their actual problems, which affects treatment and care. The Institute of Medicine (2002) reported that patients might be put at risk and even die because of health care providers’ lack cultural competence that may lead to delay in treatment or noncompliance with health care regimes. McClimens et al. (2014) reported that nursing students struggle with meeting the cultural needs of patients such as language, food, and gender. Similarly, Schuessler et al. (2012) concluded that self-reflection is necessary to be aware of cultural issues and address health care disparities. Although health care professionals may not see themselves as overtly racist or neglectful, they could be missing pertinent health care findings due to cultural blindness (Seright, 2007). Received 6 August 2019; Received in revised form 31 January 2020; Accepted 28 March 2020

Abbreviations: IDC, Intercultural Development Continuum; IDI, Intercultural Development Inventory; DO, developmental orientation toward cultural difference and commonality; PO, perceived orientation toward cultural difference and commonality

☆ The author of this article has been employed as faculty by the College of Higher Education in Nursing included in this study since March 2008 and involved in the training program including the students exchange program to foster the nursing students’ intercultural competence integrated into the curriculum. Furthermore, the author was the Deputy Head of the Department International Relations and Diversity at the Nursing College from March 2014 until March 2018.

⁎ Corresponding author at: Sandmatten 308, 4618 Boningen, Switzerland. E-mail address: [email protected]

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0260-6917/ © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




The International Council of Nursing (2013) stated that “nurses should be culturally and linguistically competent to understand and respond effectively to the cultural and linguistic needs of clients, fa- milies, and communities in a health care encounter” (p. 1). Also, the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health (Swiss Confederation, 2018b) emphasized that health professionals need to be trained to care for migrants living in Switzerland with their specific health-related needs due to their origin or their living situation to ensure the quality of care and patient safety. In summary, increasing the intercultural competence in nurses is essential as nurses better perform with higher competencies. Therefore, the nursing students’ development of intercultural compe- tence needs to be understood.

2. Background/literature

2.1. Integration of the development of intercultural competence into the curriculum

At the College of Higher Education in Nursing in Switzerland, the development of intercultural competence is integrated into the curri- culum within the school during the entire education since 2010. The program consists of various parts by using the Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC) by Hammer (2012, 2015) based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity by Bennett (1986, 1993, 2004, 2011). Apart from the fact that teachers explicitly integrate the intercultural perspective in several nursing subjects according to the curriculum, each student participates in a specific training program of 16 lessons per semester using specifically intercultural training methods such as simulations. Additionally, every nursing student mandatorily completes a student exchange program in the last year of education. An accurate reflective preparation (30 lessons) before the exchange and reflection during and after the exchange is emphasized to increase their intercultural competence (Vande Berg et al., 2009). The nursing edu- cators who conduct these training sessions are continuously trained in their competence to train intercultural competence.

2.2. Theoretical framework

The concept of intercultural competence has been explored in the literature for the last five decades (Deardorff, 2015). Several strategies to enhance intercultural competence in health care providers have been shown in smaller empirical research studies in the last 15 years. The studies applied various theoretical frameworks. The Intercultural De- velopment Continuum (IDC) by Hammer (2012, 2015) based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity by Bennet (1986, 1993, 2004, 2011) was the theoretical framework for this study. The IDC focuses on the development of the intercultural competence de- monstrating how people experience and engage cultural differences in a continuum of experience extending from ethnocentrism to ethnor- elativism. Ethnocentrism is the individuals’ experience of their culture as central to reality, and ethnorelativism is the experience of cultures as relative to context. These orientations toward cultural difference and commonality describe sets of knowledge, attitudes, and skills and are arrayed along a continuum from the more monocultural mindsets of denial and polarization through the transitional orientation of mini- mization to the intercultural or global mindsets of acceptance and adaptation (Hammer, 2012) (Insert Fig. 1 here).

Hammer et al. (2003) used the term intercultural sensitivity to refer to the ability to discriminate and experience the relevant cultural dif- ference, and the term intercultural competence to mean the ability to think and act in interculturally appropriate ways. Hammer et al. (2003) argued that greater intercultural sensitivity is associated with a greater potential for exercising intercultural competence. Intercultural com- petence “reflects the degree to which cultural difference and com- monality in values, expectations, beliefs, and practices are effectively bridged, an inclusive environment is achieved, and specific differences

that exist in one’s organization are addressed from a mutual adaptation perspective” (IDI, 2019, p. 3). Nurses with an ethnorelative orientation toward cultural difference and commonality are able to better deal with cultural diversity than nurses in an ethnocentric stage. According to Hammer (2012), the capability of deeply shifting cultural perspective and bridging behavior across cultural differences is most fully achieved when one maintains an adaptation perspective. He defined the inter- cultural competence as “the capability to accurately understand and adapt behavior to cultural difference and commonality” (IDI, 2019, p. 3). Hammer’s (2012) definition of intercultural competence implying Bennett’s (2001) definition of subjective culture as “the pattern of be- liefs, behaviors, and values maintained by groups of interacting people.” (p. 3) is included in this study, because it is coherent in dealing more effectively with diversity.

The developmental stage can be measured by the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) (Hammer et al., 2003; IDI, 2019) pro- viding individual results for the developmental orientation (DO) and the perceived orientation (PO) toward cultural difference and com- monality. The difference between where the nursing students perceive they are on the developmental continuum (PO) and where the IDI places their level of intercultural competence (DO) is called the or- ientation gap. Although the IDC does not provide concrete interventions to generally apply within the practice, it provides indications of what each individual need in which stage of development to stimulate his or her process of becoming more interculturally competent.

2.3. Findings of empirical studies conducted in health care using the IDI

The findings of the empirical studies conducted in health care re- porting the contributors to the proband’s development of intercultural competence by using the IDI are similar. However, the studies vary regarding intervention, duration, design, and scope. Most researchers have developed their own training program. For example, Halm and Wilgus (2013) developed a training program in a traditional classroom setting focusing on Latino culture, including Spanish language/music, to highlight critical reflections, cross-cultural practice, and commu- nication standards for culturally competent care. In a different ap- proach, Harder (2018) applied video and simulations with manikins to train culturally competent care. There are studies on cultural immersion but also various forms such as an in-service session on the end-of-life care (Halm et al., 2012) or a 4-week-international placement (Peiying et al., 2012). Researchers consistently emphasized the importance of reflection. However, reflection has not been clearly and comprehen- sively described, so interventions such as journal-writing or analysis of experiences within peer-discussion are heterogeneous as well. With such heterogeneity of interventions, the results may only be compared with consideration.

The same needs to be stated for the duration of the interventions and the time being devoted to the participants’ development of

Fig. 1. The Intercultural Development Continuum (Hammer, 2012).

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intercultural competence. Some researchers have allowed a short period of some weeks (e.g., Harder, 2018 or Peiying et al., 2012), but other researchers have allowed 3 to 5 years (e.g., Huckabee and Matkin, 2012 or Boggis, 2012). There are also considerations of researchers on how sustainable a certain development is. Researchers have debated whether a current intervention may increase participants’ cultural awareness only short term (Halm and Wilgus, 2013). Therefore, it re- mains unclear what is needed for an individual to develop further along the IDC having a lasting effect.

Researchers have investigated various health care professionals. The only identified studies using the IDI in nursing have been conducted by Halm and Wilgus (2013), Hamre (2012), Harder (2018), Kruse et al. (2014), Larson (2011), and Munoz et al. (2009). Some of them in- vestigated among nursing students, nursing staff, nursing faculty or a mix of them. Bourjolly et al. (2015) and Halm et al. (2012) investigated within multidisciplinary teams including nurses. Furthermore, all stu- dies in the literature review were conducted in the United States, except the study by Peiying et al. (2012) that was conducted in Australia and the study by Harder (2018) that was conducted in Canada. No study using the IDI conducted in other parts of the world such as Europe has ever been published, including in fields outside of health care. There- fore, empirical research about the orientation toward cultural differ- ence and commonality in nursing is limited, particularly in Europe in- cluding Switzerland.

2.4. Aim of this study

Although several research studies have been conducted, the knowledge about what contributes to intercultural competence within health care providers is limited. Horvat et al. (2014) concluded that “further research is required to establish greater methodological rigor and uniformity on core components of education interventions, in- cluding how they are described and evaluated” (p. 2). The aim of this study was to examine to what extent the orientation toward cultural difference and commonality on the Intercultural Development Con- tinuum of nursing students in Switzerland differs from the start- to the end-point of their nursing education at a Nursing College.

3. Method

3.1. Study design and participants

This study is a quantitative and descriptive cross-sectional study and included an ex post facto design having a similar logic of inquiry to experimental research designs, meaning it is a substitute for experi- mental research (Simon and Goes, 2013). The participants of this study were nursing students at the largest College of Higher Education in Nursing in Switzerland. The 1’112 nursing students integrated in this study completed the specialized program integrated into the curriculum at the Nursing College in Switzerland. The extent of the difference be- tween the nursing students’ orientation toward cultural difference and commonality at the start- and end-point of education was examined by using the results of the nursing students’ IDI.

3.2. Data collection

The data consisted of the results of the nursing students’ IDI com- pleted between March 2010 and September 2016 at the start- and the end-point of their education lasting 2, 2.5, or 3 years (Insert Table 1 here). The IDI was selected for this study due to its demonstrated the- oretical grounding on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sen- sitivity originally proposed by Bennett (1986, 1993, 2004, 2011). This instrument allows users to assess the effectiveness of various cross- cultural intervention by measuring the respondents’ change within the development of their intercultural competence. A second consideration for utilizing the IDI was that numerous reports have documented that

this assessment is cross-culturally generalizable, valid and reliable (Hammer, 2008, 2010, 2011; Hammer et al., 2003; Paige et al., 2003; Wiley, 2017). Content validity of the original 60-item IDI was estab- lished through in-depth interviews with individuals from a variety of cultures. Evaluations by a panel of experts, followed by survey pilo-t- testing, reduced the original scale from 60 to 50 items that cross five factors: denial/defense, reversal, minimization, acceptance/adaptation, and encapsulated marginality. Reliability coefficients of all five scales ranged from 0.80–0.085 (Hammer et al., 2003).

3.3. Data analysis

Paired samples t-tests have been computed using SPSS to compare the means score of the students’ perceived and developmental or- ientation toward cultural difference and commonality (PO and DO) at the start- and end-point of their education based on the condition that every nursing student completed the specialized program integrated into the curriculum at the Nursing College in Switzerland (Frankfort- Nachmias and Leon-Guerrero, 2015). Because theoretical reasons for specifying a direction in the research hypothesis is lacking, a two-tailed test has been conducted. Although the intention of the curriculum at the college is to foster the development of the students regarding their DO there may be retreats from some stages (Bennett, 2011). To provide an interval estimate rather than a point estimate, the 95% CI of the dif- ference has been included in the paired-samples t-test (Pallant, 2016). The threshold for the p-value was set at 0.05, meaning that the result of the t-test was considered significant if the obtained statistic was less than or equal to 0.05.

3.4. Ethical considerations

For the conduction of this study, the IDI-results of nursing students who provided their data anonymously was used. The students were randomly assigned to a login that does not relate to the person. Therefore, the data represent a de-identified dataset. This procedure was consistent with the Swiss regulations regarding data protection by the Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner including the Cantonal Data Protection Act (Swiss Confederation, 2018c). By these regulations, the management of the Nursing College provided the data to the author for this research study.

4. Results

The majority of the 1.112 nursing students in 40 cohorts was either 18–21 years (49%) or 22–30 years (41%) old. The age of 4.5% of the students was 31–40 years, and 3.5% of the students were 41–50 years old. The remaining 2% of the students were either 17 years respectively 51–60 years old. More than half of the students (63%) were female while 37% of the students were male. The participants’ mindsets were identified according to the scores of the PO and the DO as follows (IDI, 2019): scores 55.00–65.99 = denial; 66.00–69.99 = cusp of polariza- tion; scores 70.00–82.99 = polarization; scores 83.00–84.99 = cusp of minimization; scores 85.00–111.99 = minimization; scores 112.00–114.99 = cusp of acceptance; scores 115.00–126.99 = accep- tance, scores 127.00–129.99 = cusp of adaptation; and scores 130.00–145.00 = adaptation.

The paired samples t-test demonstrated an increase in the mean score of DO and a decrease of the mean score of PO at the end-point compared to the start-point of the education. The mean score for the nursing student-cohorts’ PO was 119.5 (SD 1.43, std. error mean 0.22613) at the start-point and 119.35 (SD 1.48, std. error mean 0.23353) at the end-point of their education with a 95% CI between −0.75 and 0.15 and a p-value of 0.19. The mean score for the nursing student-cohorts’ DO was 86.33 (SD 3.83, std. error mean 0.60496) at the start-point and 87.99 (SD 4.15, std. error mean 0.65577) at the end- point of their education with a 95% CI between −2.95 and − 0.38 and

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a p-value of 0.01. As the threshold was set by 0.05, the nursing student- cohorts’ orientation toward cultural difference and commonality as a group significantly differed from the beginning to the end of their education regarding the DO (p = .01) but did not significantly differ regarding the PO (p = .19). (Insert Table 2 here).

5. Discussion

Although, this study reported a statistically significant increase of the nursing students-cohorts’ DO between time one (pretest) and time

two (posttest), this result needs to be considered carefully in compar- ison with other studies which did not report significant results re- garding the increase of the participants DO.

Altshuler et al., 2003 reported that pre- and post-training IDI scores were analyzed using the three-factor model and no significant differ- ences were found for either of the two training groups. Boggis (2012) presented that group with the occupational therapy students did not show a significant change in overall DO mean scores from pretest to posttest (t = 0.847, p = .41) while the control group showed a sig- nificant decrease in DO mean scores at posttest (t = 6.1, p < .001).

Table 1 Number of IDI in each cohort including time-point.

Cohort Date Start-point End-point

IDI Students Response rate Date IDI© Students Response rate

40 Sep 10 40 40 100 March 13 12 36 33.3 41 Sep 10 30 36 83.3 March 13 24 29 82.8 42 Sep 10 43 44 97.7 March 13 28 40 70 43 Sep 10 43 43 100 March 13 33 39 84.6 1 Sep 10 29 29 100 Sep 13 22 22 100 6 Sep 10 43 43 100 Sep 13 29 46 63 7 Sep 10 38 38 100 Sep 13 25 29 86.2 8 Sep 10 49 49 100 Sep 13 39 40 97.5 2 March 11 25 26 96.2 March 14 20 21 95.2 9 March 11 33 43 76.7 March 14 19 39 48.7 44 Sep 11 32 43 74.4 March 14 35 43 81.4 45 Sep 11 42 43 97.7 March 14 31 39 79.5 46 Sep 11 35 37 94.6 March 14 35 37 94.6 3 Sep 11 22 28 78.6 Sep 14 23 23 100 10 Sep 11 50 53 94.3 Sep 14 44 50 88 11 Sep 11 37 40 92.5 Sep 14 28 35 80 4 March 12 22 22 100 March 15 17 18 94.4 12 March 12 33 35 94.3 March 15 31 37 83.8 47 March 12 22 22 100 Sep 14 24 27 88.9 48 Sep 12 39 39 100 March 15 28 34 82.4 49 Sep 12 37 37 100 March 15 35 39 89.7 50 Sep 12 38 39 97.4 March 15 33 37 89.2 13 Sep 12 44 56 78.6 Sep 15 44 50 88 14 Sep 12 40 40 100 Sep 15 21 32 65.6 37 Sep 12 13 13 100 Sep 16 12 13 92.3 15 March 13 17 17 100 March 16 18 18 100 16 March 13 26 27 96.3 March 16 26 27 96.3 51 March 13 21 21 100 March 15 20 21 95.2 52 March 13 22 22 100 March 15 16 18 88.9 17 Sep 13 47 47 100 Sep 16 35 44 79.5 18 Sep 13 48 48 100 Sep 16 41 44 93.2 53 Sep 13 33 37 89.2 Sep 15 34 37 91.9 54 Sep 13 29 29 100 Sep 15 27 29 93.1 55 Sep 13 29 29 100 Sep 15 25 26 96.2 56 Sep 13 39 39 100 Sep 15 35 38 92.1 57 March 14 24 24 100 March 16 21 24 87.5 58 March 14 25 25 100 March 16 20 26 76.9 59 Sep 14 41 41 100 Sep 16 31 35 88.6 60 Sep 14 43 44 97.7 Sep 16 36 42 85.7 61 Sep 14 43 43 100 Sep 16 35 39 89.7 Total 1366 1431 96.0 1112 1323 85.3

Table 2 Paired samples T test of perceived and developmental orientation at start compared to end of education.

Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Std. deviation Std. error mean

95% confidence interval of the difference

Lower Upper

Mean difference score of PO at the start-point and end-point of the education

−0.30 1.41 0.22 −0.75 0.15 −1.34 39 0.19

Mean difference score of DO at the start-point and end-point of the education

−1.66 4.03 0.64 −2.95 −0.38 −2.61 39 0.01

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Halm and Wilgus (2013) found out that the scores did not change significantly from pretest (M = 97.2) to posttest (M = 95.91). Halm et al. (2012) conducted the t-tests, which showed no significant dif- ferences between pre- and the posttest scores (p > .05). Hamre (2012) identified that both included groups experienced higher scores on their PO as well as their DO, but by using t-tests neither the difference for the PO (p = .88) nor the DO (p = .94) was statistically different. Harder (2018) observed a 3.38 gain in the score while both the score at the pre- and at posttest place the groups’ development orientation within the mindset of minimization without reporting any significance level. Peiying et al. (2012) reported that the DO score increased from pretest (M = 92.91) to posttest (M = 97.22) but did not reach statistical sig- nificance (p = .10).

The fact that this study identified a significant increase of the DO (p = .012) from the start- to the end-point of the education might be related to the consequently integrated approach at the Nursing College. The findings of this study may be generalized to other nursing students in Switzerland. With about 400 nursing students every year the Nursing College where the nursing students included in this study completed their education is the largest college of higher education in nursing in Switzerland (Insert Table 3 here). However, other colleges have not implemented the development of the intercultural competence as ex- tensively into their curriculum like the Nursing College. Particularly, the compulsory student exchange program in the last year of education implemented at the Nursing College since 2010 is unique in Switzer- land. As this study did not include experimental design, there are no particular statistical results regarding the relationship between PO/DO and any specific interventions. The comparison between the results of this study and those of the other studies needs to be considered care- fully because the studies are heterogenous particularly regarding in- tervention and duration.

Most researchers developed their own training program with var- ious content and design including duration. Some researchers devel- oped various educational training programs to conduct in a classroom (Altshuler et al., 2003; Bourjolly et al., 2005: Halm and Wilgus, 2013). Harder (2018) implemented experimental learning by using video and simulation. Other researcher implemented immersion-interventions such as in-service session on the end-of-life care (Halm et al., 2012) or a 4-week international placement (Peiying et al., 2012). Huckabee and Matkin (2012) combined several approaches by applying didactic in- struction, learning activities, group projects, and supervised patient care at a free clinic for the homeless. Similarly, Altshuler et al. (2003) applied a workshop and a culture OSCE (objective structured controlled evaluation). Most researchers used reflective learning methods such as journal-writing and analysis of experiences, those researchers using a mixed method design retrieved the qualitative data from those writings (Bourjolly et al., 2005). Some researchers did not apply any interven- tions as the study design was descriptive (Hamre, 2012; Kruse et al.,

2014; Larson, 2011). Because the time between the pre- and the posttest was different

according to the various duration of the interventions the duration of the studies was heterogeneous. There are researchers who assessed the participants’ orientation toward difference and commonality twice within a short time period of some weeks (Halm et al., 2012; Halm and Wilgus, 2013; Harder, 2018; and Peiying et. Al, 2012). Other re- searchers investigated over a longer period of time such as Huckabee and Matkin (2012) over a five-year period and Boggis (2012) over a three-year period. Although Munoz et al. (2009) also applied an in- tervention, they assessed the intercultural competence only once more or less at the beginning of the intervention. In summary, there is a variety of study-duration and interventions applied in studies. There- fore, the results of this and other studies within health care using the IDI may be considered carefully as the heterogeneity needs to be seen as a limitation.

The difference between PO and DO was higher than identified in other studies. However, the PO decreased from the start- to the end- point of education, but not significantly. A high orientation gap may influence the students’ level of participation in interventions because they think they were doing much better than they really were (Boggis, 2012). The students might feel a limited challenge resulting in no progression to an ethnorelative mindset. It is essential that educators provide training programs meeting the students’ level of readiness for cultural development.

5.1. Limitations

The timing when students completed the IDI might haven threa- tened the reliability by affecting the PO and DO scores of the students. At the start-point of their education, they might not have understood very well the term culture although it is explained within the IDI. The fact that students completed the IDI at the very last day of their edu- cation when students are excited and ready to head out the door would diminish its importance in the students’ view and thus affect results. Particularly. the findings of posttest PO scores not being significant and DO sores being significant need to be considered carefully. Therefore, the timing of pre and posttests should be customized in examination of this concept.

As a threat to the validity needs to be considered that there might be other variables confounding the findings of this study because of no random assignment as the development of the intercultural competence is dependent on the students’ characteristics or their environment. The implementation of theoretical and educational strategies is dependent on faculty commitment. According to the authors hypothesis, the fa- culty commitment at the Nursing College increased over time as the integration of fostering the students’ intercultural competence became more and more relevant as a strategic success position at the college focusing on continuous train the trainer-sessions. Qualitative data about the perspectives of students and faculty would contribute to the knowledge by giving more insights about what contributes to or pre- vents the development of intercultural competence. However, this study was limited to quantitative data because of restricted resources. Furthermore, the scope of this study was based on the IDC and the data of nursing students assessed by using the IDI as the measurement in- strument. Therefore, the perspective on the topic was shaped according to the propositions this theoretical framework is based on. As the de- velopment of the intercultural competence is complex, other proposi- tions of other theories may have been neglected within this study without good reason.

6. Conclusion

This study was the first investigating within nursing students in Switzerland using the IDI. Compared to other studies within health care using the IDI the sample included in the study was high. Educators can

Table 3 Number of students who completed nursing education in Switzerland.

Year Number of students having completed their nursing education at a College of Higher Education in Nursing in Switzerland

2010 1676 2011 1340 2012 1109 2013 1447 2014 1710 2015 1713 2016 1587

Note. From “Ausbildung: Eintritte und Abschlüsse im Bereich Pflege, 2010–2014,” by Obsan (2016). Gesundheitspersonal in der Schweiz – Bes- tandesaufnahme und Prognosen bis 2030, p. 53 and “Professional education,” by State Secretariat for Education Research and Innovation (2018). Vocational and Professional. Education and training in Switzerland facts and figures 2018, p. 19

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use the knowledge provided in this study and implement intercultural competence as a central element within the curriculum following the example of the Nursing College included in this study. Although this study may contribute to the knowledge what contributes to the devel- opment of the intercultural competence of nurses or other health care providers, the knowledge is still limited and further research essential.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influ- ence the work reported in this paper.


Dr. Janice D. Long, Chair of the Dissertation Committee Dr. Geri Schmotzer, Member of the Dissertation Committee Both from Walden University, 100 S Washington Ave #900,

Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA.

Funding sources

Dr. Mitchell Hammer, President of IDI, LLC supported this study by providing a dissertation research discount on the price of the Qualifying Seminar to use the Intercultural Development Inventory. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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E. Zazzi Nurse Education Today 90 (2020) 104424



  • Contributors to the development of intercultural competence in nursing students
    • Introduction
    • Background/literature
      • Integration of the development of intercultural competence into the curriculum
      • Theoretical framework
      • Findings of empirical studies conducted in health care using the IDI
      • Aim of this study
    • Method
      • Study design and participants
      • Data collection
      • Data analysis
      • Ethical considerations
    • Results
    • Discussion
      • Limitations
    • Conclusion
    • Declaration of competing interest
    • Acknowledgements
    • mk:H1_19
    • Funding sources
    • mk:H1_21
    • References

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